Corn gluten meal

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch from maize grain (Zea mays L.) by wet milling. It consists principally of gluten obtained during the separation of starch. Corn gluten meal is a protein-rich feed (about 60%) and is a different product from corn gluten feed (about 20% protein). Other names: maize gluten meal, corn gluten, maize gluten.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.9 100 % - 2.7 84.2 -97.5 472 4.3
Crude protein 61.6 67.8 % - 3.6 50.1 -74.8 599 3.4 54.5 -77.9 472
Crude fibre 1.4 1.5 % - 0.7 0.6 -4.2 103 0.7 0.7 -4.5 101
Crude fat 6 6.6 % - 1.6 0.3 -7.5 110 1.7 0.3 -8.1 100
Ash 1.8 2 % - 0.8 0.8 -6.5 215 0.9 0.9 -7 189
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 0.2 0.02 -0.4 5 0.02 -0.4 4
NDF 3.6 4 % - 2.3 1 -7.7 28 2.5 1.1 -8.4 42
ADF 1.3 1.4 % - 1.1 0.2 -3.4 30 1.2 0.2 -3.7 47
Lignin 0.2 0.2 % - 0.1 0.09 -0.5 16 0.2 0.01 -0.7 33
Water insoluble cell walls 3.5 3.9 % - 2.7 -4.3 3 2.9 -4.8 2
Starch 15.5 17.1 % - 3.4 5.3 -21.7 157 3.7 6.3 -23.4 133
Starch, enzymatic method 12.4 13.7 % - 5.1 7.3 -13.8 6 5.6 8.1 -23.9 8
Total sugars 0.4 0.5 % - 0.2 0.1 -1.4 100 0.3 0.1 -1.5 101
Gross energy (kcal) 5200 5720 kcal/kg - 210 4790 -5400 31 150 5230 -5940 36
Gross energy (MJ) 21.8 23.9 MJ/kg - 0.9 20 -22.6 31 0.6 21.9 -24.8 36
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.3 0.09 -1.3 146 0.3 0.1 -1.5 146
Phosphorus 3.7 4.1 g/kg - 1.8 0.5 -8.3 169 2 0.5 -9.3 170
Phytate phosphorus 3 3.3 g/kg 80 % P 1 2.9 -5.2 2
Magnesium 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.5 0.05 -1 18 0.5 0.06 -2.5 20
Potassium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.9 0.2 -4.2 17 1 0.2 -4.6 17
Sodium 0.84 0.92 g/kg - 0.9 0.05 -3.37 104 0.99 0.05 -3.74 103
Chlorine 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.1 0.6 -0.9 5 0.1 0.7 -1 5
Sulfur 5.9 6.5 g/kg - 1.7 4 -9.2 8 1.9 4.4 -10.1 8
Dietary cation-anion difference -323 -355 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 46 50 mEq/kg -
Manganese 10 11 mg/kg - 6 1 -23 8 7 1 -25 8
Zinc 33 36 mg/kg - 15 11 -59 10 16 12 -64 10
Copper 12 13 mg/kg - 4 3 -16 8 5 4 -18 8
Iron 119 130 mg/kg - 75 3 -240 14 82 3 -264 10
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.1 0 -0.3 6 0.1 0 -0.3 6
Cobalt 2 2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.07 0.07 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 5 5.5 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.9 0.9 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 12.3 13.5 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 28.1 30.8 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.2 0.2 -0.8 5 0.3 0.1 -0.9 7 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0-0.04 2
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1 1
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 4.7 5.2 g/kg 78 % fat 2 76-81 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 14.2 15.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 24.4 26.9 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2.1 2.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 8 8.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 60.4 66.4 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 6.4 7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Choline 363 399 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 328 361 mg/kg - 62 134 -631 566 68 149 -520 149
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.58 1.74 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.64 1.8 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 385 424 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 428 471 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 109 119 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.457 0.502 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 4050 4450 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2780 3050 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2890 3170 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 15.9 17.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.9 12 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.2 12.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 94.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 98.4 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 31 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 87 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 39 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 3.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 14.6 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.58 1.74 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.64 1.8 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 355 390 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 400 440 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 138 152 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.52 1.67 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.57 1.72 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 419 461 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 459 505 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 75 82 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.37 1.51 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.3 1.43 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.37 1.5 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.3 1.43 per kg - 0.06 1.29 -1.43 5
PDIA INRA 2007 447 491 g/kg - 74 333 -540 6
PDIN INRA 2007 516 567 g/kg - 62 455 -633 6
PDIE INRA 2007 478 525 g/kg - 72 366 -567 6
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3660 4020 kcal/kg - 150 3620 -4010 5
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 15.3 16.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.6 16 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 96 % 2.1 94.2-99.9 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 96.7 % 1.6 94.6-99 5
N digestibility ruminants - 81 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 27 % 8 8-36 10
Immediately degradable N (a) - 3 % 0.1-10 3
Potentially degradable N (b) - 83 % 9-87 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.025 h-1 0.011-0.066 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 87 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 23 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 77 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.285 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 37 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 16 % 6-17 2
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 84 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.02 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.5 2.8 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 13.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1366 1502 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1494 1643 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 475 523 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 74 82 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.5 3.8 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2.4 2.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 85.6 94.1 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 4.43 4.87 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.46 2.7 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 2.33 2.56 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 2.57 2.82 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.84 2.02 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 70 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 76 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 9.7 10.6 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 568 624 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 8 9 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4710 5170 kcal/kg - 280 3990 -4900 18 270 4440 -5380 18
ME growing pig (kcal) 4340 4780 kcal/kg - 170 3900 -4360 14
NE growing pig (kcal) 2730 3000 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4850 5330 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4460 4900 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2860 3140 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 19.7 21.7 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 19.4 21.3 MJ/kg - 1.2 16.7 -20.5 18 1.1 18.6 -22.5 18
ME growing pig (MJ) 18.2 20 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 17.9 19.7 MJ/kg - 0.7 16.3 -18.3 14 0.5 18 -19.9 14
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.4 12.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.4 12.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 19.9 21.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 20.3 22.3 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.7 20.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.2 20 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 90.4 % 3.4 82.7-94 16
Energy digestibility adult pig - 93.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 90.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 93.5 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85.7 % 4 85.3-95 5
N digestibility adult pig - 87.1 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 92 % 3.9 81.5-96.8 18
Crude fat digestibility pig - 70.2 % 69-76 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 19 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 28 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3750 4120 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3700 4070 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.7 17.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.3 16.8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.5 17 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.1 16.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
Available P cockerel 0.9 1 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 0.9 1 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.1 1.21 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 518 570 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 4670 5130 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 4080 4480 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 19.5 21.5 MJ/kg - 1
DE rabbit (MJ) 19.5 21.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 17.1 18.8 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 17 18.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 89.7 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 79.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4470 4920 kcal/kg - 3780 -4590 2 4210 -5040 2
DE salmonids (MJ) 18.7 20.6 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 18 19.8 MJ/kg - 15.8 -19.2 2 17.6 -21.1 2
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 85.9 %
N digestibility salmonids - 93.8 % 92-96 2
Digestible P salmonids 0.3 0.4 g/kg 9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 10.9 12 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1.4 7.1 -13.5 105 1.5 7.8 -15 90 0.2 1.3-2.3 108
Threonine 20.4 22.5 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 2.1 15.2 -25.9 93 2.3 16.5 -28.4 78 0.2 2.4-3.8 96
Methionine 14.5 16 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 2 10.5 -20.3 85 2.2 10.6 -23.1 70 0.3 1.5-3 88
Cystine 11.1 12.2 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1.5 6.4 -13.8 81 1.7 7 -15.3 64 0.2 1.1-2.3 83
Methionine + cystine 25.6 28.2 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 3 20.4 -31.8 79 3.2 20.5 -34.6 61 0.4 2.9-5 80
Tryptophan 3.1 3.4 g/kg 0.5 g/16g N 0.6 2 -4.4 51 0.6 2.2 -4.8 33 0.08 0.4-0.7 52
Isoleucine 24.4 26.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 2.9 17.6 -29.8 91 3.1 19.1 -33.4 76 0.3 3-4.8 94
Valine 27.9 30.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 3 19.7 -32.8 91 3.2 21.4 -35.9 75 0.3 3.9-5.3 93
Leucine 96.3 106 g/kg 15.6 g/16g N 8.8 78.9 -123 92 9.1 85.9 -135 77 0.9 13.9-18.3 95
Phenylalanine 37 40.7 g/kg 6 g/16g N 4 28.9 -46.9 92 4.2 31.4 -51.5 77 0.4 4.7-6.9 95
Tyrosine 29.5 32.5 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 4.2 22.1 -36.8 63 4.5 24 -41.4 50 0.4 4.1-5.6 66
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 66.5 73.1 g/kg 10.8 g/16g N 8.3 50.9 -82.8 63 8.8 55.4 -91.3 49 0.8 9.5-12.2 65
Histidine 12.6 13.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1.7 8.4 -16.9 78 1.8 9.2 -18.6 63 0.2 1.6-2.5 81
Arginine 19.1 21 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 2.8 13 -24.9 89 3 14.1 -27.3 74 0.3 2.4-3.9 92
Alanine 52.3 57.5 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 6.1 38.8 -61.5 86 6.5 42.2 -73.6 71 0.6 6.8-10.5 89
Aspartic acid 36.2 39.8 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 4.2 26.3 -45.7 86 4.5 28.6 -50 71 0.5 4.6-7.6 89
Glutamic acid 122 135 g/kg 19.9 g/16g N 13.9 91.9 -152 86 14.8 100 -168 71 1.5 17.5-24.5 89
Glycine 16.3 17.9 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 2.5 10 -20.6 87 2.7 10.9 -22.4 71 0.3 1.8-3.2 90
Serine 30.1 33.1 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 4 18.3 -37.1 87 4.3 20 -41.3 72 0.5 3-5.8 90
Proline 53.1 58.4 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 5.3 42.1 -63.2 55 5.5 45.8 -68.3 40 0.5 7.7-9.9 58
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 9.7 10.6 g/kg 89 % 10.6 -10.9 2 4 79-93 18
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 18.9 20.7 g/kg 92 % 17.3 -19.1 2 19.3 -21.6 2 4 82-97 18
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 13.7 15.1 g/kg 95 % 3 89-98 18
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 10.2 11.2 g/kg 92 % 8.7 -11.1 2 9.8 -12.6 2 4 81-97 18
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 23.9 26.3 g/kg 93 % 23.9 -26.8 2 4 86-97 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 2.9 g/kg 87 % 1 1 10 62-92 17
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 22.6 24.8 g/kg 92 % 21.6 -26.1 2 24.1 -29.6 2 3 83-96 18
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 25.5 28 g/kg 91 % 22.1 -28.2 2 24.7 -31.9 2 4 80-97 18
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 91.2 100 g/kg 95 % 3 87-98 18
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 34.8 38.3 g/kg 94 % 32.8 -37.3 2 36.7 -42.2 2 3 86-98 18
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 27.8 30.6 g/kg 94 % 3 89-98 18
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 62.6 68.9 g/kg 94 % 62.2 -69 2 4 87-98 5
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 11.6 12.7 g/kg 92 % 10.8 -12.3 2 12 -13.9 2 4 79-97 18
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 18.1 19.9 g/kg 95 % 3 87-97 18
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 48.4 53.3 g/kg 93 % 46.9 -50.7 2 52.5 -57.3 2 4 85-98 18
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 33.6 36.9 g/kg 93 % 32.4 -35.3 2 36.2 -39.9 2 3 83-96 18
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 114 126 g/kg 93 % 113 -144 2 4 83-99 18
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 13.7 15 g/kg 84 % 9 67-98 18
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 28.4 31.2 g/kg 95 % 27.9 -30.1 2 31.2 -34.1 2 3 85-98 18
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 42.2 46.4 g/kg 79 % 5 73-90 14
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.4 g/kg 79 % 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 16.1 17.7 g/kg 79 % 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.9 14.2 g/kg 89 % 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9 g/kg 74 % 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.1 23.2 g/kg 82 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.5 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.8 22.8 g/kg 85 % 1 1
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 23.5 25.8 g/kg 84 % 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 85.7 94.2 g/kg 89 % 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 32.5 35.8 g/kg 88 % 1 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 26.3 28.9 g/kg 89 % 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 58.8 64.7 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.3 11.3 g/kg 82 % 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 16.4 18.1 g/kg 86 % 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 46.5 51.2 g/kg 89 % 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 29.3 32.3 g/kg 81 % 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 108 119 g/kg 88 % 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13.2 g/kg 74 % 1 1
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.9 28.4 g/kg 86 % 1 1
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 46.8 51.4 g/kg 88 % 1 1
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 20.19 22.2 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 6.91 7.6 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 1635 1798 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0332 0.0366 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 142 156 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0006 0.0007 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML