Corn gluten meal

Byproduct of the manufacture of starch from maize grain (Zea mays L.) by wet milling. It consists principally of gluten obtained during the separation of starch. Corn gluten meal is a protein-rich feed (about 60%) and is a different product from corn gluten feed (about 20% protein). Other names: maize gluten meal, corn gluten, maize gluten.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 90.9 100 % - 4.8 84.2 -97.5 454 4.3
Crude protein 61.4 67.6 % - 3.6 50.1 -74.8 580 3.4 54.5 -77.9 453
Crude fibre 1.4 1.5 % - 0.7 0.6 -4.2 103 0.7 0.7 -4.5 101
Crude fat 2.3 2.6 % - 1.6 0.3 -7.5 109 1.7 0.3 -8.1 99
Crude fat, hydrolysis 6 6.6 % - 1.8 1.4 -9.6 133 2 1.6 -10.3 83
Ash 1.9 2.1 % - 0.8 0.8 -6.5 206 0.9 0.9 -7 180
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.1 % - 0.2 0.02 -0.4 5 0.02 -0.4 4
NDF 3.6 4 % - 2.3 1 -7.7 28 2.5 1.1 -8.4 42
ADF 1.3 1.4 % - 1.1 0.2 -3.4 30 1.2 0.2 -3.7 47
Lignin 0.2 0.2 % - 0.1 0.09 -0.5 16 0.2 0.01 -0.7 33
Water insoluble cell walls 3.5 3.9 % - 2.7 -4.3 3 2.9 -4.8 2
Starch 15.7 17.3 % - 3.4 5.3 -21.7 157 3.7 6.3 -23.4 133
Total sugars 0.4 0.5 % - 0.2 0.1 -1.4 100 0.3 0.1 -1.5 101
Gross energy (kcal) 5000 5500 kcal/kg - 210 4790 -5400 31 150 5230 -5940 36
Gross energy (MJ) 20.9 23 MJ/kg - 0.9 20 -22.6 31 0.6 21.9 -24.8 36
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.3 0.09 -1.3 146 0.3 0.1 -1.5 146
Phosphorus 3.9 4.3 g/kg - 1.8 0.5 -8.3 169 2 0.5 -9.3 170
Phytate phosphorus 3.2 3.5 g/kg 80 % P 1 2.9 -5.2 2
Magnesium 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.5 0.05 -1 18 0.5 0.06 -2.5 20
Potassium 1.2 1.3 g/kg - 0.9 0.2 -4.2 17 1 0.2 -4.6 17
Sodium 0.83 0.91 g/kg - 0.9 0.05 -3.37 104 0.99 0.05 -3.74 103
Chlorine 0.7 0.8 g/kg - 0.1 0.6 -0.9 5 0.1 0.7 -1 5
Sulfur 5.9 6.5 g/kg - 1.7 4 -9.2 8 1.9 4.4 -10.1 8
Dietary cation-anion difference -323 -356 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 45 50 mEq/kg -
Manganese 10 11 mg/kg - 6 1 -23 8 7 1 -25 8
Zinc 33 36 mg/kg - 15 11 -59 10 16 12 -64 10
Copper 12 13 mg/kg - 4 3 -16 8 5 4 -18 8
Iron 119 130 mg/kg - 75 3 -240 14 82 3 -264 10
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.1 0 -0.3 6 0.1 0 -0.3 6
Cobalt 2 2 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.8 0.9 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.08 0.09 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0.1-0.2 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 6.1 6.7 g/kg 13 % FA 1.6 11.1-16 7
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.3 % FA 0.3-0.3 2
C18:0 stearic acid 1 1.1 g/kg 2.1 % FA 0.4 1.7-2.6 7
C18:1 oleic acid 11.4 12.5 g/kg 24.2 % FA 1.6 21.3-26.2 7
C18:2 linoleic acid 26.8 29.5 g/kg 56.8 % FA 3.7 51.4-61.3 7
C18:3 linolenic acid 1 1.1 g/kg 2.2 % FA 0.3 1.8-2.9 7
Fatty acids 4.7 5.2 g/kg 78 % fat 2 76-81 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 14.2 15.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 24 27 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0.3 0.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 60 66 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 6 7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Choline 363 399 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 328 361 mg/kg - 63 134 -631 511 68 149 -520 140
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.48 1.62 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.52 1.68 per kg -
PDIA Systali 384 423 g/kg -
PDI Systali 427 470 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 108 118 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.456 0.502 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 3800 4190 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2600 2860 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2680 2950 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 15.9 17.5 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.9 12 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.2 12.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 93.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 96.9 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 31 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 39 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 87 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 2.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 3.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 14.6 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.8 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.5 1.65 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.56 1.71 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 354 389 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 399 439 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 137 151 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.42 1.56 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.46 1.6 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 417 459 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 458 504 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 74 82 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.3 1.43 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.3 1.43 per kg - 0.06 1.29 -1.43 5
PDIA INRA 2007 445 490 g/kg - 74 333 -540 6
PDIN INRA 2007 514 565 g/kg - 62 455 -633 6
PDIE INRA 2007 476 523 g/kg - 72 366 -567 6
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3480 3830 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 14.6 16 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 95.2 % 2.1 94.2-99.9 5
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 95.9 % 1.6 94.6-99 5
N digestibility ruminants - 80.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 27 % 8 8-36 10
Immediately degradable N (a) - 3 % 0.1-10 3
Potentially degradable N (b) - 83 % 9-87 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.025 h-1 0.011-0.066 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 87 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 23 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 77 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.285 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 37 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 16 % 6-17 2
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 84 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.02 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 75.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.7 3 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 3.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.2 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 13.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 4630 5100 kcal/kg - 280 3990 -4900 18 270 4440 -5380 18
ME growing pig (kcal) 4270 4700 kcal/kg - 170 3900 -4360 14 120 4300 -4750 14
NE growing pig (kcal) 2720 2990 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 4750 5220 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 4350 4790 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2820 3100 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 19.4 21.3 MJ/kg - 1.2 16.7 -20.5 18 1.1 18.6 -22.5 18
ME growing pig (MJ) 17.9 19.7 MJ/kg - 0.7 16.3 -18.3 14 0.5 18 -19.9 14
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.4 12.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 19.9 21.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 18.2 20 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 92.7 % 3.4 82.7-94 16
Energy digestibility adult pig - 95 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 92.5 % 92-94 3
OM digestibility adult pig - 95 %
N digestibility growing pig - 85.7 % 4 85.3-95 5
N digestibility adult pig - 86.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 92 % 3.9 81.5-96.8 18
Crude fat digestibility pig - 70.2 % 69-76 3
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 19 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3640 4010 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3610 3970 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 15.3 16.8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 15.1 16.6 MJ/kg - 1 1
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 84.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.05 1.15 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 517 568 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 4650 5120 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 4070 4470 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 19.5 21.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 17 18.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 93.1 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 79.5 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 4300 4730 kcal/kg - 3780 -4590 2 4210 -5040 2
DE salmonids (MJ) 18 19.8 MJ/kg - 15.8 -19.2 2 17.6 -21.1 2
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 85.9 %
N digestibility salmonids - 93.8 % 92-96 2
Digestible P salmonids 0.3 0.4 g/kg 9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 10.8 11.9 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1.4 7.1 -13.5 103 1.5 7.8 -15 89 0.2 1.3-2.3 107
Threonine 20.4 22.4 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 2.2 15.2 -25.9 91 2.3 16.5 -28.4 77 0.2 2.4-3.8 95
Methionine 14.4 15.9 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 2 10.5 -20.3 83 2.2 10.6 -23.1 69 0.3 1.5-3 87
Cystine 11.1 12.2 g/kg 1.8 g/16g N 1.5 6.4 -13.8 79 1.7 7 -15.3 63 0.2 1.1-2.3 82
Methionine + cystine 25.5 28.1 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 3 20.4 -31.8 77 3.2 20.5 -34.6 61 0.4 2.9-5 80
Tryptophan 3.1 3.4 g/kg 0.5 g/16g N 0.6 2 -4.4 51 0.6 2.2 -4.8 33 0.08 0.4-0.7 52
Isoleucine 24.4 26.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 2.9 17.6 -29.8 89 3.1 19.1 -33.4 75 0.3 3-4.8 93
Valine 27.9 30.6 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 3.1 19.7 -32.8 89 3.2 21.4 -35.9 74 0.3 3.9-5.3 92
Leucine 95.9 106 g/kg 15.6 g/16g N 8.8 78.9 -123 90 9.1 85.9 -135 76 0.9 13.9-18.3 94
Phenylalanine 36.9 40.6 g/kg 6 g/16g N 4 28.9 -46.9 90 4.2 31.4 -51.5 76 0.4 4.7-6.9 94
Tyrosine 29.4 32.4 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 4.2 22.1 -36.8 63 4.5 24 -41.4 49 0.4 4.1-5.6 65
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 66.3 72.9 g/kg 10.8 g/16g N 8.3 50.9 -82.8 60 8.8 55.4 -91.3 46 0.8 9.5-12.2 62
Histidine 12.6 13.8 g/kg 2 g/16g N 1.7 8.4 -16.9 76 1.8 9.2 -18.6 62 0.2 1.6-2.5 80
Arginine 19.1 21 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 2.8 13 -24.9 87 3.1 14.1 -27.3 73 0.3 2.4-3.9 91
Alanine 52.1 57.3 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 6.1 38.8 -61.5 84 6.5 42.2 -73.6 70 0.6 6.8-10.5 88
Aspartic acid 36.1 39.7 g/kg 5.9 g/16g N 4.3 26.3 -45.7 84 4.5 28.6 -50 70 0.5 4.6-7.6 88
Glutamic acid 122 134 g/kg 19.9 g/16g N 14 91.9 -152 84 14.8 100 -168 70 1.5 17.5-24.5 88
Glycine 16.2 17.8 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 2.5 10 -20.6 85 2.7 10.9 -22.4 70 0.3 1.8-3.2 89
Serine 30 32.9 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 4 18.3 -37.1 85 4.3 20 -41.3 71 0.4 3-5.8 89
Proline 52.9 58.2 g/kg 8.6 g/16g N 5.2 42.1 -63.2 53 5.5 45.8 -68.3 39 0.5 7.7-9.9 57
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 9.6 10.6 g/kg 89 % 9.4 -9.6 2 10.6 -10.9 2 4 79-93 18
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 18.8 20.7 g/kg 92 % 17.3 -19.1 2 19.3 -21.6 2 4 82-97 18
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 13.6 15 g/kg 95 % 3 89-98 18
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 10.2 11.2 g/kg 92 % 8.7 -11.1 2 9.8 -12.6 2 4 81-97 18
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 23.9 26.2 g/kg 93 % 23.9 -26.8 2 4 86-97 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 2.9 g/kg 87 % 1 1 10 62-92 17
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 22.5 24.8 g/kg 92 % 21.6 -26.1 2 24.1 -29.6 2 3 83-96 18
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 25.4 28 g/kg 91 % 22.1 -28.2 2 24.7 -31.9 2 4 80-97 18
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 90.9 100 g/kg 95 % 3 87-98 18
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 34.7 38.2 g/kg 94 % 32.8 -37.3 2 36.7 -42.2 2 3 86-98 18
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 27.7 30.5 g/kg 94 % 3 89-98 18
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 62.4 68.7 g/kg 94 % 62.2 -69 2 4 87-98 5
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 11.6 12.7 g/kg 92 % 10.8 -12.3 2 12 -13.9 2 4 79-97 18
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 18 19.9 g/kg 95 % 3 87-97 18
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 48.3 53.1 g/kg 93 % 46.9 -50.7 2 52.5 -57.3 2 4 85-98 18
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 33.5 36.8 g/kg 93 % 32.4 -35.3 2 36.2 -39.9 2 3 83-96 18
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 114 125 g/kg 93 % 113 -144 2 4 83-99 18
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 13.6 15 g/kg 84 % 9 67-98 18
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 28.3 31.1 g/kg 95 % 27.9 -30.1 2 3 85-98 18
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 42 46.2 g/kg 79 % 5 73-90 14
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.4 g/kg 79 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 16.1 17.7 g/kg 79 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.8 14.1 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9 g/kg 74 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 21.1 23.2 g/kg 82 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 2.3 2.5 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 20.7 22.8 g/kg 85 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 23.4 25.7 g/kg 84 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 85.4 93.9 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 32.4 35.7 g/kg 88 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 26.2 28.8 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 58.6 64.5 g/kg 88 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.3 11.3 g/kg 82 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 16.4 18 g/kg 86 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 46.3 51 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 29.3 32.2 g/kg 81 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 107 118 g/kg 88 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 12 13.2 g/kg 74 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.8 28.3 g/kg 86 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 46.6 51.3 g/kg 88 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.72 5.19 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.43 1.58 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 402 443 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0076 0.0084 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.02 3.33 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.46 0.5 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML