Maize

Maize grain (Zea mays L.). Other name: corn (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.3 100 % - 2.1 78.6 -98.7 6687 2
Crude protein 7.6 8.9 % - 0.6 5.7 -10.8 7399 0.7 6.7 -12.2 6356
Crude fibre 2.3 2.6 % - 0.4 1.3 -3.5 1619 0.5 1.4 -4 1461
Crude fat 3.6 4.1 % - 0.3 2.4 -5 3334 0.4 2.8 -5.8 3144
Ash 1.2 1.4 % - 0.1 0.8 -1.8 1832 0.2 0.9 -2.1 1665
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 0.04 0 -0.2 121 0.05 0 -0.2 121
NDF 10.7 12.5 % - 1.4 6.7 -14.4 201 1.6 7.7 -16.5 149
ADF 2.7 3.1 % - 0.6 1.9 -4.4 200 0.7 2.3 -8.7 149
Lignin 0.5 0.6 % - 0.3 0.03 -1.2 155 0.3 0.03 -1.4 103
Water insoluble cell walls 8.3 9.6 % - 0.6 7 -10.6 141 0.6 8 -11.7 104
Starch 63.8 73.9 % - 1.6 57.1 -70.8 6298 1.5 57.7 -79.9 5342
Total sugars 1.7 2 % - 0.5 0.3 -3.4 245 0.6 0.3 -4 179
Gross energy (kcal) 3840 4450 kcal/kg - 70 3730 -4280 100 60 4310 -4810 304
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.6 MJ/kg - 0.3 15.6 -17.9 100 0.2 18 -20.1 304
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.4 0.5 g/kg - 0.4 0 -8.4 931 0.5 0 -9.6 927
Phosphorus 2.5 2.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.1 -4.6 309 0.3 1.3 -3.6 210
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P 0.4 1.6 -2.8 5 0.4 1.8 -3.2 8 11 64-94 8
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.2 0.6 -1.6 138 0.2 0.7 -1.8 156
Potassium 3.1 3.6 g/kg - 0.4 2.1 -5.4 182 0.5 2.4 -5.2 164
Sodium 0.04 0.04 g/kg - 0.05 0 -0.34 214 0.06 0 -0.4 189
Chlorine 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.1 0.3 -0.9 128 0.1 0.3 -0.9 99
Sulfur 1.1 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 1 -1.4 6 0.2 1.1 -1.6 6
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 67 77 mEq/kg -
Manganese 8 10 mg/kg - 8 3 -110 53 10 3 -56 67
Zinc 21 24 mg/kg - 8 8 -45 38 9 9 -55 52
Copper 3 3 mg/kg - 1 2 -8 40 2 2 -9 44
Iron 35 40 mg/kg - 111 15 -115 77 129 21 -790 36
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.05 0.05 mg/kg - 0.02 0.02 -0.09 5 0.03 0.02 -0.1 6
Molybdenum 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 0.4 0.2 -1 5
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 0.08 0.1-0.4 17
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.2 3.7 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.6 3 -4.3 7 0.7 3.5 -5.8 8 0.8 8.6-13.6 201
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA 1 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.08 0.4 -0.6 7 0.09 0.5 -0.7 7 0.2 1.3-2.7 200
C18:1 oleic acid 7.9 9.1 g/kg 26.1 % FA 1.2 7.4 -9.8 7 1.3 8.6 -13.2 8 3 20-35.4 201
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.9 20.8 g/kg 59.5 % FA 2.3 16.6 -23.8 13 2.7 19.4 -27.2 13 3.4 49.4-67.6 206
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.06 0.3 -0.5 7 0.07 0.4 -0.6 7 0.3 0.3-1.9 200
Fatty acids 3 3.5 g/kg 85 % fat 1 81-87 4
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.3 2.7 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 17 20 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4 4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg - 4 -6 2 5 -6 2
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 21 24 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 6 7 mg/kg - 3 -7 2 4 -8 2
Folic acid 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Choline 532 617 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 23 26 mg/kg - 4 2 -44 2081 5 2 -53 662
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.6 mL/g 0.2 0.1-0.7 18
Phytase activity 20 20 IU/kg - 30 0 -90 7 30 0 -110 8
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.07 1.24 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.09 1.26 per kg -
PDIA Systali 37 43 g/kg -
PDI Systali 81 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -46 -53 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.29 0.336 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2790 3240 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1880 2180 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1920 2220 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.7 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.9 9.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 8 9.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 87.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 84.7 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 47 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 61 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 58 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 10.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.09 1.26 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.11 1.29 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 33 38 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 80 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -46 -53 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.03 1.2 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.05 1.21 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 42 48 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 84 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -48 -55 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.22 per kg - 1 0.06 1.11 -1.32 11
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.23 per kg - 1 0.07 1.09 -1.35 11
PDIA INRA 2007 43 50 g/kg - 16 28 -79 15
PDIN INRA 2007 59 69 g/kg - 9 51 -69 4 11 59 -99 15
PDIE INRA 2007 81 93 g/kg - 13 76 -103 4 15 88 -148 15
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2790 3230 kcal/kg - 150 160 3030 -3590 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.5 MJ/kg - 0.6 0.7 12.7 -15 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 % 5.3 81-99 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86 % 5.6 76.3-97.1 21
N digestibility ruminants - 65.4 % 23.5-94 3
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 % 10 25-67 32
Immediately degradable N (a) - 11 % 13 6-43 8
Potentially degradable N (b) - 82 % 24 25-88 8
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.012 0.026-0.07 8
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 % 57-60 2
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 23 % 20-40 2
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 77 % 60-79 2
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.03-0.057 2
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 % 13 38-76 11
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 20 % 17 -6-45 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 76 % 17 54-103 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.028 0.018-0.08 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.8 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.1 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3370 3900 kcal/kg - 140 3040 -3610 31 150 3490 -4140 36
ME growing pig (kcal) 3280 3810 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2630 3050 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3500 4060 kcal/kg - 1 3920 -4170 3
ME adult pig (kcal) 3400 3940 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2710 3140 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.1 16.3 MJ/kg - 0.6 12.7 -15.1 31 0.6 14.6 -17.3 36
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.7 15.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.7 17 MJ/kg - 1 16.4 -17.4 3
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.6 % 2.4 80-91.8 33
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 90.3 % 1.7 86.3-92 12
OM digestibility adult pig - 94 %
N digestibility growing pig - 80.5 % 5.5 69.9-90 25
N digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 86 % 4.7 71.6-91.5 17
Crude fat digestibility pig - 59.1 % 8.7 42-77 14
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 28 % 1 1 17-37 4
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3160 3660 kcal/kg - 120 2950 -3540 12 130 3300 -3930 31
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3090 3580 kcal/kg - 130 2950 -3360 10 140 3340 -3770 12
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 15.3 MJ/kg - 0.5 12.4 -14.8 12 0.5 13.8 -16.4 31
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 15 MJ/kg - 0.5 12.4 -14.1 10 0.6 14 -15.8 12
Available P broiler 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 86.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.11 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 53 62 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3200 3710 kcal/kg - 1 3390 -3730 3
ME rabbit (kcal) 3120 3620 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.4 15.5 MJ/kg - 1 14.2 -15.6 3
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 71.5 % 62.4-77 3
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1500 1740 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.3 7.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 39 % 1
N digestibility salmonids - 95 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.2 2 -3.3 155 0.3 2.2 -3.5 52 0.3 2.4-3.8 145
Threonine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.3 2.2 -3.5 151 0.3 2.6 -3.8 50 0.2 3-4.2 143
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.2 1.2 -1.9 154 0.2 1.3 -2.3 53 0.2 1.4-2.8 146
Cystine 1.9 2.2 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.1 1.3 -2.1 145 0.2 1.5 -2.3 43 0.2 1.8-2.7 136
Methionine + cystine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.3 2.6 -4 137 0.3 3 -4.4 41 0.3 3.5-4.9 134
Tryptophan 0.5 0.6 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.06 0.4 -0.9 121 0.07 0.5 -0.8 32 0.06 0.5-0.9 122
Isoleucine 2.8 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 152 0.4 2.4 -4.1 52 0.2 3-4.4 143
Valine 3.8 4.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -4.7 153 0.5 3.4 -5.4 52 0.3 4.2-5.8 144
Leucine 9.3 10.8 g/kg 12.2 g/16g N 1 6.6 -14.2 151 1.2 7.7 -12.9 50 0.7 9.7-14.1 142
Phenylalanine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.4 2.6 -4.8 153 0.5 3 -5.1 51 0.3 3.7-5.6 144
Tyrosine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3.6 108 0.5 2.1 -3.8 18 0.3 2.5-4.6 103
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.9 8 g/kg 9 g/16g N 1.3 4.4 -11.6 137 1.5 5 -12.3 84 0.6 6.5-9.9 171
Histidine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.2 1.8 -2.8 153 0.2 2.1 -3.2 52 0.2 2.4-3.5 144
Arginine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.3 2.7 -5 154 0.4 3.1 -5 53 0.3 3.8-5.6 146
Alanine 5.7 6.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 0.6 4.2 -7.4 151 0.7 4.9 -8.2 50 0.4 5.9-9.1 142
Aspartic acid 5 5.8 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 0.6 3.9 -6.9 153 0.6 4.5 -7.9 52 0.4 5.7-8.5 145
Glutamic acid 14.1 16.4 g/kg 18.5 g/16g N 1.5 9.9 -18.5 152 1.7 11.5 -19.1 51 1.1 13.7-20.9 144
Glycine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.3 2.5 -4 153 0.3 2.9 -4.3 51 0.3 3.2-4.8 144
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -5.1 148 0.4 3.4 -5.5 46 0.3 3.6-6.3 139
Proline 7.1 8.2 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N 0.7 4.8 -8.6 142 0.7 5.6 -9 42 0.5 7-9.7 135
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 80 % 0.2 1.7 -2.2 6 0.3 1.9 -2.6 6 7 64-87 20
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 83 % 0.4 1.8 -2.9 6 0.5 2 -3.3 6 7 60-91 20
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 91 % 0.2 1.2 -1.7 6 0.3 1.4 -2 6 5 73-96 19
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 2 g/kg 89 % 6 73-94 16
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 90 % 0.4 2.4 -3.4 5 0.5 2.7 -3.9 5 4 79-94 14
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 80 % 7 76-99 10
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 88 % 0.4 2.4 -3.4 6 0.4 2.7 -3.9 6 5 75-93 20
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 87 % 0.5 3.3 -4.5 6 0.6 3.6 -5.2 6 5 74-94 20
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 10 g/kg 93 % 1.8 7.3 -12.4 6 2 8.7 -14.3 6 5 80-96 20
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 91 % 0.6 3.1 -4.6 6 0.7 3.6 -5.3 6 4 80-95 19
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.4 g/kg 90 % 0.3 2.5 -3.4 6 0.4 2.8 -3.9 6 5 79-94 17
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.3 g/kg 91 % 0.9 5.8 -8 5 1.1 6.5 -9.2 5 4 80-95 14
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 89 % 0.2 1.7 -2.3 6 0.2 2 -2.7 6 5 75-94 19
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.9 g/kg 91 % 0.2 3 -3.7 6 0.3 3.4 -4.2 6 4 78-95 20
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.9 g/kg 89 % 0.9 4.9 -7.1 6 1 5.5 -8.2 6 4 79-95 18
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 5 g/kg 87 % 0.7 4 -5.6 6 0.8 4.4 -6.4 6 6 72-94 18
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 13.1 15.2 g/kg 93 % 2.3 12 -18.2 6 2.7 13.5 -21 6 3 84-96 18
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 82 % 0.5 1.8 -2.8 5 0.6 2 -3.3 5 9 58-93 16
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 89 % 0.6 3 -4.5 6 0.7 3.4 -5.2 6 5 74-96 18
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.3 g/kg 89 % 1 4.7 -7.3 6 1.2 5.6 -8.4 6 5 79-97 9
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 90 % 6 71-99 16
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 83 % 7 69-93 16
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 94 % 3 88-100 16
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 86 % 6 75-94 16
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 90 % 5 83-95 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 85 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3.1 g/kg 93 % 5 79-100 16
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 90 % 5 76-99 16
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 10.2 g/kg 94 % 3 86-97 16
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 4 g/kg 93 % 5 83-100 16
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 88 % 4 82-95 12
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.3 7.3 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 90 % 3 86-97 16
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 4 g/kg 93 % 3 86-96 16
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 93 % 3 85-97 15
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 89 % 6 78-97 15
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.4 15.6 g/kg 95 % 3 90-100 15
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 86 % 5 77-90 9
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 91 % 6 79-100 16
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.4 g/kg 91 % 3 84-96 13
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.39 5.09 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.77 3.21 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 455 527 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0133 0.0154 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.82 4.43 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.22 1.42 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML