Maize

Maize grain (Zea mays L.). Other name: corn (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.3 100 % - 1.2 78.6 -98.7 7222 2
Crude protein 7.6 8.8 % - 0.6 5.7 -10.8 7801 0.7 6.7 -12.2 6752
Crude fibre 2.3 2.6 % - 0.4 1.3 -3.5 1665 0.5 1.4 -4 1504
Crude fat 3.6 4.1 % - 0.3 2.4 -5 3470 0.4 2.8 -5.8 3278
Ash 1.2 1.4 % - 0.1 0.8 -1.8 1888 0.2 0.9 -2.1 1721
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % - 0.04 0 -0.2 121 0.05 0 -0.2 121
NDF 10.7 12.4 % - 1.4 6.7 -15.4 261 1.6 7.7 -16.5 161
ADF 2.6 3.1 % - 0.6 1.7 -4.4 260 0.7 1.9 -8.7 161
Lignin 0.5 0.6 % - 0.3 0.03 -1.3 209 0.3 0.03 -1.5 111
Water insoluble cell walls 8.3 9.6 % - 0.6 7 -10.6 163 0.6 8 -11.7 118
Starch 63.8 73.9 % - 1.6 57.1 -70.8 6531 1.5 57.7 -79.9 5566
Starch, enzymatic method 59.3 68.8 % - 2.6 55.8 -66.7 46 2.9 64 -78 59
Total sugars 1.7 2 % - 0.5 0.3 -3.4 261 0.6 0.3 -4 195
Gross energy (kcal) 3840 4450 kcal/kg - 70 3730 -4280 102 60 4310 -4810 306
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.6 MJ/kg - 0.3 15.6 -17.9 102 0.2 18 -20.1 306
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.4 0.5 g/kg - 0.4 0 -8.4 934 0.5 0 -9.6 930
Phosphorus 2.5 2.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.1 -4.6 320 0.3 1.3 -3.6 220
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P 0.4 1.6 -2.8 5 0.4 1.8 -3.2 8 11 64-94 8
Magnesium 1 1.2 g/kg - 0.2 0.6 -1.6 139 0.2 0.7 -1.8 158
Potassium 3.1 3.6 g/kg - 0.4 2.1 -5.4 183 0.5 2.4 -5.2 166
Sodium 0.03 0.04 g/kg - 0.05 0 -0.34 214 0.06 0 -0.4 190
Chlorine 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.1 0.3 -0.9 128 0.1 0.3 -0.9 99
Sulfur 1.1 1.3 g/kg - 0.2 1 -1.4 6 0.2 1.1 -1.6 6
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 67 77 mEq/kg -
Manganese 9 10 mg/kg - 9 3 -110 53 10 3 -56 68
Zinc 20 24 mg/kg - 8 8 -45 38 9 9 -55 53
Copper 3 3 mg/kg - 1 2 -8 40 2 2 -9 45
Iron 35 40 mg/kg - 110 15 -115 77 127 21 -790 37
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1
Cobalt 0.05 0.05 mg/kg - 0.02 0.02 -0.09 5 0.03 0.02 -0.1 6
Molybdenum 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 0.4 0.2 -1 5
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.2 3.8 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.6 3 -4.3 7 0.7 3.5 -5.8 8 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.6 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.08 0.4 -0.6 7 0.09 0.5 -0.7 7 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 8 9.3 g/kg 26.1 % FA 1.2 7.4 -9.8 7 1.3 8.6 -13.2 8 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.3 21.2 g/kg 59.5 % FA 2.3 16.6 -23.8 13 2.7 19.4 -27.2 13 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.06 0.3 -0.5 7 0.07 0.4 -0.6 7 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.1 -0.3 3 0.1 -0.3 3 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.1 3.6 % 86 % fat 1 4 81-91 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.3 2.7 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 17.1 19.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3.6 4.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.4 1.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.3 mg/kg - 4.4 -5.5 2 5.1 -6.2 2
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 20.7 24 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 5.8 6.7 mg/kg - 3.3 -7.4 2 3.7 -8.5 2
Folic acid 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Choline 532 617 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 23 26 mg/kg - 4 2 -44 2081 5 2 -53 662
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.6 mL/g 0.2 0.1-0.7 18
Phytase activity 20 20 IU/kg - 30 0 -90 7 30 0 -110 8
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.11 1.29 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.14 1.33 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 37 42 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 82 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -48 -55 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.29 0.336 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2880 3340 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1960 2270 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2010 2330 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.7 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.9 9.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 9.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 47 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 61 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 58 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.13 1.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.16 1.35 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 33 38 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 81 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -47 -55 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.08 1.25 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.1 1.27 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 42 48 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 84 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -49 -57 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.09 1.26 per kg - 1 0.06 1.03 -1.27 11
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.22 per kg - 1 0.06 1.11 -1.32 11
UFV INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg - 1 0.08 0.99 -1.29 11
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.23 per kg - 1 0.07 1.09 -1.35 11
PDIA INRA 2007 43 50 g/kg - 16 28 -79 15
PDIN INRA 2007 59 69 g/kg - 9 51 -69 4 11 59 -99 15
PDIE INRA 2007 82 95 g/kg - 13 76 -103 4 15 88 -148 15
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2870 3320 kcal/kg - 150 160 3030 -3590 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12 13.9 MJ/kg - 140
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.5 MJ/kg - 0.6 0.7 12.7 -15 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 91 % 5.3 81-99 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 % 5.6 76.3-97.1 21
N digestibility ruminants - 68 % 23.5-94 3
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 % 1
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 44 % 10 25-67 33
Immediately degradable N (a) - 11 % 13 6-43 8
Potentially degradable N (b) - 82 % 24 25-88 8
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.04 h-1 0.012 0.026-0.07 8
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 60 % 57-60 2
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 23 % 20-40 2
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 77 % 60-79 2
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.03-0.057 2
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 % 13 38-76 11
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 20 % 17 -6-45 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 76 % 17 54-103 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.028 0.018-0.08 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.9 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1090 1264 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1213 1406 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 80 93 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -40 -46 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.6 5.3 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2.1 2.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 77 89.3 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.33 3.86 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.74 2.02 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.65 1.91 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.87 2.17 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.29 1.49 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 53 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 60 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.7 8.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 141 164 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -10 -12 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3370 3900 kcal/kg - 140 3040 -3610 31 150 3490 -4140 36
ME growing pig (kcal) 3290 3810 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2630 3050 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3500 4060 kcal/kg - 1 3920 -4170 3
ME adult pig (kcal) 3400 3940 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2710 3140 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.1 16.3 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.8 15.9 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.7 17 MJ/kg - 1
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.5 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.3 13.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.7 % 2.4 80-91.8 33
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 90.3 % 1.7 86.3-92 12
OM digestibility adult pig - 93.6 %
N digestibility growing pig - 80.5 % 5.5 69.9-90 25
N digestibility adult pig - 91.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 86 % 4.7 71.6-91.5 17
Crude fat digestibility pig - 59.1 % 8.7 42-77 14
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 28 % 1 1 17-37 4
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 42 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3160 3660 kcal/kg - 180 2520 -3540 13 210 2810 -3930 32
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3090 3590 kcal/kg - 120 2950 -3360 11 130 3340 -3770 13
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 15.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 15 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Available P broiler 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.7 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 86.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.12 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 53 62 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3200 3710 kcal/kg - 3070 -3660 2 3390 -4260 4
ME rabbit (kcal) 3120 3620 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.4 15.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.4 % 76.2-92 3
N digestibility rabbit - 71.4 % 62.4-84.2 4
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1500 1740 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.3 7.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 39 % 1
N digestibility salmonids - 95 % 1
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 0.2 1.9 -3.3 163 0.3 2.2 -3.5 54 0.3 2.4-3.8 147
Threonine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.3 2.2 -3.5 156 0.3 2.6 -3.8 52 0.2 3-4.2 145
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.2 1.2 -2 159 0.2 1.3 -2.3 55 0.2 1.4-2.8 148
Cystine 1.9 2.2 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N 0.2 1.3 -2.1 150 0.2 1.5 -2.4 45 0.2 1.8-2.7 138
Methionine + cystine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.3 2.2 -4 149 0.3 2.5 -4.4 44 0.3 2.7-4.9 137
Tryptophan 0.5 0.6 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.06 0.4 -0.9 122 0.07 0.5 -0.8 33 0.06 0.5-0.9 123
Isoleucine 2.8 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 157 0.4 2.4 -4.1 54 0.2 3-4.4 145
Valine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -4.7 157 0.5 3.4 -5.4 53 0.3 4.2-5.8 145
Leucine 9.3 10.8 g/kg 12.2 g/16g N 1.1 6.6 -14.2 156 1.2 7.7 -13 52 0.8 9.7-14.1 144
Phenylalanine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.4 2.6 -4.8 158 0.5 3 -5.1 53 0.3 3.7-5.6 146
Tyrosine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.4 1.8 -3.6 108 0.5 2.1 -3.8 18 0.3 2.5-4.6 103
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.9 8 g/kg 9 g/16g N 0.8 4.5 -8.3 108 0.9 5.2 -8.7 17 0.5 6.6-10 102
Histidine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 0.2 1.8 -2.8 158 0.3 2.1 -3.2 54 0.2 2.4-3.5 146
Arginine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.3 2.7 -5.6 159 0.4 3.1 -5 55 0.3 3.8-5.6 148
Alanine 5.6 6.5 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N 0.6 4.2 -7.4 155 0.7 4.9 -8.2 51 0.4 5.9-9.1 143
Aspartic acid 4.9 5.7 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 0.5 3.9 -6.9 157 0.6 4.5 -7.9 53 0.4 5.7-8.5 146
Glutamic acid 14.1 16.3 g/kg 18.5 g/16g N 1.5 9.9 -18.5 156 1.7 11.5 -19.1 52 1.1 13.7-20.9 145
Glycine 2.9 3.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.3 2.5 -4 157 0.3 2.9 -4.3 52 0.3 3.2-4.8 145
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N 0.4 2.9 -5.1 152 0.4 3.4 -5.5 47 0.3 3.6-6.3 140
Proline 7 8.2 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N 0.6 4.8 -8.6 146 0.7 5.6 -9 43 0.5 7-9.7 136
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 80 % 0.2 1.7 -2.2 6 0.3 1.9 -2.6 6 7 64-87 20
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.7 g/kg 83 % 0.4 1.8 -2.9 6 0.5 2 -3.3 6 7 60-91 20
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 91 % 0.2 1.2 -1.7 6 0.3 1.4 -2 6 5 73-96 19
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 2 g/kg 89 % 6 73-94 16
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 90 % 0.4 2.4 -3.4 5 0.5 2.7 -3.9 5 4 79-94 14
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 80 % 7 76-99 10
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 88 % 0.4 2.4 -3.4 6 0.4 2.7 -3.9 6 5 75-93 20
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.9 g/kg 87 % 0.5 3.3 -4.5 6 0.6 3.6 -5.2 6 5 74-94 20
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 10 g/kg 93 % 1.8 7.3 -12.4 6 2 8.7 -14.3 6 5 80-96 20
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 91 % 0.6 3.1 -4.6 6 0.7 3.6 -5.3 6 4 80-95 19
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.4 g/kg 90 % 0.3 2.5 -3.4 6 0.4 2.8 -3.9 6 5 79-94 17
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.3 g/kg 91 % 0.9 5.8 -8 5 1.1 6.5 -9.2 5 4 80-95 14
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 89 % 0.2 1.7 -2.3 6 0.2 2 -2.7 6 5 75-94 19
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 91 % 0.2 3 -3.7 6 0.3 3.4 -4.2 6 4 78-95 20
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.8 g/kg 89 % 0.9 4.9 -7.1 6 1 5.5 -8.2 6 4 79-95 18
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 5 g/kg 87 % 0.7 4 -5.6 6 0.8 4.4 -6.4 6 6 72-94 18
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 13 15.1 g/kg 93 % 2.3 12 -18.2 6 2.7 13.5 -21 6 3 84-96 18
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 82 % 0.5 1.8 -2.8 5 0.6 2 -3.3 5 9 58-93 16
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 89 % 0.6 3 -4.5 6 0.7 3.4 -5.2 6 5 74-96 18
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 6.3 7.2 g/kg 89 % 1 4.7 -7.3 6 1.2 5.6 -8.4 6 5 79-97 9
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 90 % 6 71-99 16
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 83 % 7 69-93 16
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 94 % 3 88-100 16
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 86 % 6 75-94 16
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 90 % 5 83-95 5
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 85 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 93 % 5 79-100 16
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 90 % 5 76-99 16
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 10.1 g/kg 94 % 3 86-97 16
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 4 g/kg 93 % 5 83-100 16
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 88 % 4 82-95 12
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.2 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 90 % 3 86-97 16
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 93 % 3 86-96 16
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 6.1 g/kg 93 % 3 85-97 15
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 89 % 6 78-97 15
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.4 15.5 g/kg 95 % 3 90-100 15
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 86 % 5 77-90 9
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 91 % 6 79-100 16
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.4 g/kg 91 % 3 84-96 13
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.35 5.05 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.87 3.32 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 443 513 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0129 0.015 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 56.73 65.77 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, organic fertilizers, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.12 3.61 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.34 1.55 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 289 335 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0119 0.0138 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 52.41 60.76 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, cover cropping, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.43 3.98 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.03 4.67 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 288 334 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0128 0.0148 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 55.54 64.38 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, protein crop, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.29 3.82 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 3.94 4.57 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 278 322 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0121 0.014 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 52.38 60.73 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, average, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 3.43 3.98 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.85 5.62 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 294 340 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.012 0.0139 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 51.75 60 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML