Maize distillers grains and solubles, oil < 6 %, dried

Dried byproduct of alcohol (beverages) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of maize grains (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. This product contains less residual oil than regular maize distillers. Other names and alternative spellings: dried distillers grains with solubles, maize DDGS, corn DDGS, maize distillers' grains, maize distiller's grains, corn distillers.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.3 100 % - 1.3 82.3 -96.5 1624 2
Crude protein 24.6 27.9 % - 1.5 17 -30.9 1658 1.7 21.6 -34.6 1633
Crude fibre 7.4 8.4 % - 0.6 5.1 -10.4 997 0.7 5.6 -12.2 971
Crude fat 4.5 5.1 % - 0.9 0.8 -10.8 1021 1 0.9 -12.2 1018
Ash 6 6.8 % - 0.5 3.1 -7.8 807 0.5 3.5 -8.7 808
Insoluble ash 0.6 0.7 % -
NDF 31.9 36.1 % - 5.1 23.2 -40.3 33 5.7 24.5 -51 44
ADF 9.7 10.9 % - 3 7.4 -18.1 35 3.4 8.2 -25.1 46
Lignin 2 2.3 % - 1.1 0.3 -3.9 21 1.3 0.4 -5.4 27
Water insoluble cell walls 32.4 36.7 % -
Starch 11.9 13.5 % - 2.2 1.4 -17.4 563 2.5 1.6 -20 526
Starch, enzymatic method 11 12.5 % - 1 1
Total sugars 0.8 0.9 % - 0.6 0.2 -2.1 19 0.7 0.2 -2.3 18
Gross energy (kcal) 4050 4590 kcal/kg - 340 4570 -5500 9
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.2 MJ/kg - 1.4 19.1 -23 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.1 2.4 g/kg - 1.2 0.6 -5.8 156 1.4 0.7 -6.6 154
Phosphorus 8.4 9.5 g/kg - 0.8 4.4 -11.4 197 0.9 5 -12.9 196
Phytate phosphorus 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P 1 1
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 2.5 -3 3 2.9 -4 4
Potassium 10.8 12.2 g/kg - 2.9 8 -14.9 26 3.3 8.7 -17.1 8
Sodium 4.27 4.84 g/kg - 1.93 1.1 -7 34 2.19 0.5 -7.8 16
Chlorine 2.9 3.2 g/kg - 0.6 1.6 -3.9 19 0.7 2.5 -4.5 12
Sulfur 4.9 5.5 g/kg - 4.1 -6.5 3 4.4 -7.4 3
Dietary cation-anion difference 77 87 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 382 433 mEq/kg -
Manganese 22 25 mg/kg - 13 -23 4 24 -26 4
Zinc 60 68 mg/kg - 46 -103 4
Copper 8 9 mg/kg - 6 -14 3
Iron 282 320 mg/kg - 156 -553 4 138 -633 3
Selenium 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.03 0.03 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.05 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.6 4 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 8.8 10 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 20 22.7 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.4 3.8 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 38 43 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 8.3 9.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 6.8 7.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 12.61 14.29 µg/kg -
Niacin 73.1 82.9 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 13.5 15.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Choline 2222 2517 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 35 39 mg/kg - 8 19 -55 45 9 21 -61 38
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 340 390 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.03 1.17 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 96 108 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 144 163 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 52 59 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.246 0.278 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2740 3110 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1820 2060 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1810 2050 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.4 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 82.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 81.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 57 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 63 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.7 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.7 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.05 1.19 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.05 1.19 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 86 97 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 135 153 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 61 69 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.99 1.12 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.98 1.11 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 109 123 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 156 176 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 39 45 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.98 1.11 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.99 1.12 per kg - 1
UFV INRA 2007 0.96 1.09 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.97 1.1 per kg - 1
PDIA INRA 2007 108 122 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 180 204 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 155 176 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2680 3040 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.3 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.2 % 1
N digestibility ruminants - 76.8 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 % 11 40-70 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 25 % 17-45 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 60 % 40-74 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.027 0.027-0.1 5
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 85 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 % 57-69 4
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 40 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 49 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.06 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.7 6.5 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.2 1.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.4 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 988 1119 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1061 1202 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 147 166 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 49 55 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.4 5 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.8 2.1 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 64.9 73.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.03 3.44 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.55 1.75 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.46 1.65 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.66 1.88 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.1 1.24 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 42 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 47 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7 7.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 211 240 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 6 6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2950 3340 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2760 3130 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1810 2050 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3280 3720 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3020 3420 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2030 2300 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.6 13.1 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.6 8.6 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.8 7.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.9 14.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 13.7 15.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.6 14.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8 9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.5 9.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 72.7 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 81 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.5 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 83.7 %
N digestibility growing pig - 61.5 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 69.7 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 62 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54.1 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.6 2.9 g/kg 31 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.9 4.4 g/kg 46 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2250 2550 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2210 2500 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.1 10.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.2 10.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70.4 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.72 0.82 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 187 212 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2950 3340 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2750 3120 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14 MJ/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.5 13 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.5 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.8 %
N digestibility rabbit - 65.9 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2490 2820 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 61.5 %
N digestibility salmonids - 85.8 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.3 8.2 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.5 4.1 -9.6 33 1.7 3.8 -10.9 36 0.5 1.5-3.3 38
Threonine 8.9 10.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.3 8 -11.6 19 1.5 8.4 -12.9 21 0.3 2.9-4 23
Methionine 4.6 5.2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.6 3.6 -5.9 26 0.7 4.1 -6.8 27 0.2 1.5-2.1 29
Cystine 5 5.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.5 4.2 -6.2 19 0.6 4.6 -7.1 19 0.2 1.6-2.3 19
Methionine + cystine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.1 8.2 -11.8 19 1.2 9.1 -13.5 19 0.3 3.1-4.3 19
Tryptophan 1.8 2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.3 15 0.4 1.2 -2.5 15 0.1 0.4-0.9 17
Isoleucine 8.9 10 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.2 8 -12.9 18 1.4 8.8 -14.7 19 0.3 3-4.3 21
Valine 12.1 13.7 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.5 10.6 -15.9 18 1.7 11.7 -18.2 19 0.4 4-5.4 21
Leucine 25.7 29.1 g/kg 10.4 g/16g N 5.6 22.7 -39.8 17 6.3 24.1 -44 19 1.8 8.4-14.3 21
Phenylalanine 11 12.4 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.9 10 -15.8 16 2.1 11.1 -17.5 18 0.5 3.8-5.6 20
Tyrosine 7.7 8.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 1.3 8.5 -11.8 5 0.3 2.9-3.8 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 18.6 21.1 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 3.3 17.7 -25.9 3 3.7 19.6 -28.9 5 0.8 6.7-8.9 6
Histidine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1.1 5.1 -9.1 17 1.2 5.9 -10.4 18 0.3 2.2-3.1 20
Arginine 10.4 11.8 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1.5 8.5 -14 18 1.7 9.5 -15.9 20 0.4 3.4-4.7 22
Alanine 16.6 18.8 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 2.1 16.3 -21.4 5 2.4 18.8 -24.2 6 0.3 6.4-7.3 6
Aspartic acid 15.5 17.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 2.1 15.5 -20.4 5 2.3 17.4 -23.3 6 0.3 6.2-7 6
Glutamic acid 36.3 41.1 g/kg 14.7 g/16g N 0.9 14.4-17 7
Glycine 9.9 11.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.5 9.4 -12.6 7 1.7 9.5 -14.1 9 0.4 3.3-4.4 9
Serine 10.6 12 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.6 10.3 -15.5 7 1.8 11.8 -17.4 9 0.4 4.2-5.4 9
Proline 18.8 21.3 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 0.5 7.4-8.9 5
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 58 % 1 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 62 % 1 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.4 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.3 g/kg 68 % 1 1 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 28 % 1 1 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.2 g/kg 72 % 1 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 66 % 1 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 20.1 22.8 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.8 g/kg 79 % 1 1 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 14.5 16.4 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 8.9 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 11.1 12.5 g/kg 67 % 1 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.2 10.4 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.9 28.3 g/kg 69 % 1 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.2 g/kg 46 % 1 1 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 66 % 1 1 1
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 11.8 13.3 g/kg 63 % 20 47-121 34
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 74 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.1 g/kg 70 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 80 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 68 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.1 8 g/kg 74 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.5 g/kg 74 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.8 7.7 g/kg 76 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.1 10.3 g/kg 75 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 19.5 22.1 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.5 9.6 g/kg 77 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 73 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 14.1 16 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.6 g/kg 74 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 78 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 12.4 14.1 g/kg 75 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 11.1 12.6 g/kg 72 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.6 32.3 g/kg 79 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7 8 g/kg 71 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.9 g/kg 74 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 14.2 16.1 g/kg 75 %
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