Maize distillers grains and solubles, oil < 6 %, dried

Dried byproduct of alcohol (beverages) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of maize grains (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. This product contains less residual oil than regular maize distillers. Other names and alternative spellings: dried distillers grains with solubles, maize DDGS, corn DDGS, maize distillers' grains, maize distiller's grains, corn distillers.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.3 100 % - 2.2 82.3 -96.5 1624 2
Crude protein 24.6 27.9 % - 1.5 17 -30.9 1658 1.7 21.6 -34.6 1633
Crude fibre 7.4 8.3 % - 0.6 5.1 -10.4 997 0.7 5.6 -12.2 971
Crude fat 3.8 4.3 % - 0.9 0.8 -10.8 1021 1 0.9 -12.2 1018
Crude fat, hydrolysis 4.5 5.1 % - 0.6 1.5 -6 410 0.7 1.6 -6.9 408
Ash 6 6.8 % - 0.5 3.1 -7.8 807 0.5 3.5 -8.7 808
NDF 31.8 36.1 % - 5.1 23.2 -40.3 33 5.7 24.5 -51 44
ADF 9.6 10.9 % - 3 7.4 -18.1 35 3.4 8.2 -25.1 46
Lignin 2 2.3 % - 1.1 0.3 -3.9 21 1.3 0.4 -5.4 27
Water insoluble cell walls 32.3 36.6 % -
Starch 11.9 13.5 % - 2.2 1.4 -17.4 563 2.5 1.6 -20 526
Total sugars 0.8 0.9 % - 0.6 0.2 -2.1 19 0.7 0.2 -2.3 18
Gross energy (kcal) 4050 4590 kcal/kg - 340 4570 -5500 9
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.2 MJ/kg - 1.4 19.1 -23 9
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 2.1 2.4 g/kg - 1.2 0.6 -5.8 156 1.4 0.7 -6.6 154
Phosphorus 8.4 9.5 g/kg - 0.8 4.4 -11.4 197 0.9 5 -12.9 196
Phytate phosphorus 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P 1 1
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 2.5 -3 3 2.9 -4 4
Potassium 10.8 12.2 g/kg - 2.9 8 -14.9 26 3.3 8.7 -17.1 8
Sodium 4.27 4.84 g/kg - 1.93 1.1 -7 34 2.19 0.5 -7.8 16
Chlorine 2.9 3.2 g/kg - 0.6 1.6 -3.9 19 0.7 2.5 -4.5 12
Sulfur 3.2 3.6 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 183 207 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 382 433 mEq/kg -
Manganese 22 25 mg/kg - 13 -23 4 24 -26 4
Zinc 60 68 mg/kg - 46 -103 4
Copper 6 6 mg/kg - 4 -7 4 6 -14 3
Iron 260 295 mg/kg - 156 -553 4 138 -633 3
Selenium 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.03 0.03 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.5 4 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 1.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 8.8 9.9 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 20 22.6 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.4 3.8 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0.5 0.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 38 43 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 7 8 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 13 14 µg/kg -
Niacin 73 83 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 14 15 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Choline 2222 2517 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 36 41 mg/kg - 8 19 -55 45 9 21 -61 38
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 340 390 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.02 1.15 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.01 1.15 per kg -
PDIA Systali 96 108 g/kg -
PDI Systali 143 162 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 53 59 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.246 0.278 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2720 3080 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1790 2030 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1780 2020 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.4 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 82.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 81 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 57 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 84 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 63 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.5 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 10.7 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.7 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.04 1.18 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.04 1.18 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 86 97 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 135 153 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 61 69 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.98 1.11 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.96 1.09 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 109 123 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 156 176 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 40 45 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.98 1.11 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.96 1.09 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 108 122 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 180 204 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 155 176 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2660 3020 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 83.7 % 1
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 82.5 % 1
N digestibility ruminants - 76.6 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 % 11 40-70 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 25 % 17-45 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 60 % 40-74 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 85 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 % 57-69 4
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 40 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 49 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.06 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.7 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.7 6.5 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 1.2 1.3 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.4 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.5 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2640 2990 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 2460 2790 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1630 1850 kcal/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (kcal) 3070 3480 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2820 3200 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1900 2160 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.8 7.8 MJ/kg - 1 1
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.9 14.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8 9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 65.1 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 75.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 68.2 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 79 %
N digestibility growing pig - 61.6 % 1
N digestibility adult pig - 72.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 62 % 1
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.6 2.9 g/kg 31 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2230 2520 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2190 2480 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.1 10.4 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.9 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.72 0.82 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 187 212 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2950 3340 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2750 3120 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.4 14 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.5 13 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.9 %
N digestibility rabbit - 65.9 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.2 8.2 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.5 4.1 -9.6 33 1.7 3.8 -10.9 36 0.5 1.5-3.3 38
Threonine 8.9 10.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.3 8 -11.6 19 1.5 8.4 -12.9 21 0.3 2.9-4 23
Methionine 4.6 5.2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.6 3.6 -5.9 26 0.7 4.1 -6.8 27 0.2 1.5-2.1 29
Cystine 5 5.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.5 4.2 -6.2 19 0.6 4.6 -7.1 19 0.2 1.6-2.3 19
Methionine + cystine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1 8.2 -11.8 18 1.2 9.1 -13.5 18 0.3 3.1-4.3 18
Tryptophan 1.8 2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 1 -2.3 15 0.4 1.2 -2.5 15 0.1 0.4-0.9 17
Isoleucine 8.8 10 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.2 8 -12.9 18 1.4 8.8 -14.7 19 0.3 3-4.3 21
Valine 12.1 13.7 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.5 10.6 -15.9 18 1.7 11.7 -18.2 19 0.4 4-5.4 21
Leucine 25.7 29.1 g/kg 10.4 g/16g N 5.6 22.7 -39.8 17 6.3 24.1 -44 19 1.8 8.4-14.3 21
Phenylalanine 11 12.5 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1.9 10 -15.8 16 2.1 11.1 -17.5 18 0.5 3.8-5.6 20
Tyrosine 7.7 8.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N 1.3 8.5 -11.8 5 0.3 2.9-3.8 6
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 18.6 21.1 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 19.6 -22.4 4 0.6 6.7-8.4 5
Histidine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1.1 5.1 -9.1 17 1.2 5.9 -10.4 18 0.3 2.2-3.1 20
Arginine 10.4 11.8 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 1.5 8.5 -14 18 1.7 9.5 -15.9 20 0.4 3.4-4.7 22
Alanine 16.6 18.8 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 2.1 16.3 -21.4 5 2.4 18.8 -24.2 6 0.3 6.4-7.3 6
Aspartic acid 15.5 17.6 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 2.1 15.5 -20.4 5 2.3 17.4 -23.3 6 0.3 6.2-7 6
Glutamic acid 36.3 41.1 g/kg 14.7 g/16g N 0.9 14.4-17 7
Glycine 9.9 11.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.5 9.4 -12.6 7 1.7 9.5 -14.1 9 0.4 3.3-4.4 9
Serine 10.6 12 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.6 10.3 -15.5 7 1.8 11.8 -17.4 9 0.4 4.2-5.4 9
Proline 18.8 21.3 g/kg 7.6 g/16g N 0.5 7.4-8.9 5
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 58 % 1 1 1
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 62 % 1 1 1
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3 3.3 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 6.5 7.3 g/kg 68 % 1 1 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.5 0.6 g/kg 28 % 1 1 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 6.4 7.2 g/kg 72 % 1 1 1
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 66 % 1 1 1
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 20.1 22.8 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.8 g/kg 79 % 1 1 1
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 14.5 16.4 g/kg 78 % 1 1 1
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 8.9 g/kg 76 % 1 1 1
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 11.1 12.5 g/kg 67 % 1 1 1
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 9.2 10.5 g/kg 59 % 1 1 1
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 24.9 28.3 g/kg 69 % 1 1 1
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.2 g/kg 46 % 1 1 1
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 66 % 1 1 1
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