Maize distillers grains with solubles, ethanol production, dried

Byproduct of alcohol (ethanol) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of maize grains (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. Other names and alternative spellings: dried distillers grains with solubles, maize DDGS, corn DDGS, maize distillers' grains, maize distiller's grains, corn distillers.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.6 100 % - 1.4 80.7 -95.8 1020 2.2
Crude protein 27.3 30.4 % - 1.6 21.7 -37.3 1077 1.7 24.6 -41.6 1026
Crude fibre 7.1 7.9 % - 1 4.6 -11.2 634 1.1 5.1 -12.2 605
Crude fat 12.6 14 % - 1.8 6.1 -17 374 2 6.7 -18.5 358
Ash 4.4 4.9 % - 0.7 1.2 -7.8 706 0.8 1.3 -8.6 675
Insoluble ash 0.4 0.5 % -
NDF 31.9 35.6 % - 6.1 19.6 -45.2 106 6.8 22.7 -51.1 102
ADF 9.4 10.5 % - 3.3 4.7 -21.9 135 3.7 5.2 -26.9 137
Lignin 2.7 3 % - 1.2 0.9 -4.7 39 1.3 1 -5.1 40
Water insoluble cell walls 31.2 34.8 % - 1
Starch 4.5 5 % - 1.8 0.3 -16 649 2.1 0.3 -18 609
Starch, enzymatic method 3.9 4.3 % - 2.2 4 -9.7 5
Total sugars 2.6 2.9 % - 2.4 0.3 -4.6 20 2.7 0.3 -11 21
Gross energy (kcal) 4640 5180 kcal/kg - 240 4160 -5150 37 260 4770 -5700 42
Gross energy (MJ) 19.4 21.7 MJ/kg - 1 17.4 -21.6 37 1.1 19.9 -23.9 42
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.9 0.07 -5.7 109 1 0.08 -6.4 102
Phosphorus 7.7 8.5 g/kg - 1.1 3.9 -9.9 187 1.2 4.2 -11 179
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P 1 1 1
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 0.7 0.8 -6.2 73 0.8 0.9 -7 84
Potassium 9.9 11.1 g/kg - 1.9 2.7 -13.2 116 2.1 3 -14.9 77
Sodium 2.64 2.95 g/kg - 1.49 0.09 -9.1 303 1.66 0.1 -9.39 252
Chlorine 1.7 1.9 g/kg - 0.4 1.1 -3.5 86 0.4 1.2 -4 86
Sulfur 6.1 6.8 g/kg - 2.3 2.7 -17.3 67 2.5 3.1 -19.3 78
Dietary cation-anion difference -61 -68 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 321 358 mEq/kg -
Manganese 20 23 mg/kg - 15 4 -107 74 16 5 -123 84
Zinc 60 66 mg/kg - 27 32 -232 66 30 37 -254 76
Copper 5 6 mg/kg - 2 3 -12 66 3 0 -13 76
Iron 111 124 mg/kg - 56 46 -352 66 62 54 -436 76
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.3 0 -0.8 10 0.3 0 -0.9 9
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg - 0.7 0.7 -3 13
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1 -0.4 2 0.1 -0.4 2 0.1 0.1-0.4 18
C16:0 palmitic acid 9.9 11.1 g/kg 10.5 % FA 0.8 8.6-13.6 202
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C18:0 stearic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 1.8 % FA 0.2 1.3-2.7 201
C18:1 oleic acid 24.6 27.5 g/kg 26.1 % FA 3 20-35.4 202
C18:2 linoleic acid 56.1 62.6 g/kg 59.5 % FA 3.4 49.4-67.6 208
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.3 1.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 0.3 0.3-1.9 202
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 0.6 % FA 0.2 0.1-1.2 186
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 1
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 9.4 10.5 % 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 38.5 43 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 8.5 9.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 6.9 7.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 12.81 14.29 µg/kg -
Niacin 74.3 82.9 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 13.7 15.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Choline 2256 2517 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 55 61 mg/kg - 9 32 -103 119 10 45 -98 45
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 390 440 IU/kg - 260 -530 2 300 -580 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.25 1.39 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.26 1.41 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 106 118 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 154 172 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 66 74 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.25 0.278 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 3280 3660 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2200 2450 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2220 2480 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 13.5 15.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9 10.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 83.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 57 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 83 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 63 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 11.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.27 1.42 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.29 1.44 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 95 106 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 145 162 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 76 85 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.2 1.34 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.2 1.34 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 121 135 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 168 187 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 52 58 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.16 1.3 per kg - 1
UFL INRA 2007 1.17 1.31 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.14 1.28 per kg - 1
UFV INRA 2007 1.16 1.3 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 119 133 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 200 223 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 162 180 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3160 3530 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.1 14.6 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.2 14.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86 %
N digestibility ruminants - 77.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 25 % 17-45 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 60 % 40-74 2
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.027 0.027-0.1 5
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 78 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 17 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.136 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 40 % 1
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 49 % 1
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.06 h-1 1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 77.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.2 5.8 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1173 1309 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1272 1419 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 154 172 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 70 78 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.1 4.6 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.8 2 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 74.2 82.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.46 3.86 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.88 2.1 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.78 1.99 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.94 2.17 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.33 1.49 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 42 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 47 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 8.3 9.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 241 269 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 5 6 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3390 3790 kcal/kg - 180 3300 -4040 8 190 3710 -4330 8
ME growing pig (kcal) 3200 3570 kcal/kg - 200 3040 -3860 8 220 3410 -4140 8
NE growing pig (kcal) 2200 2450 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3740 4170 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3470 3870 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2420 2700 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.2 15.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.4 15 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9.2 10.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 15.7 17.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.5 16.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 10.1 11.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 73.2 % 72.9-78.7 2
Energy digestibility adult pig - 80.7 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.6 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 83.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 62.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 70.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 62 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 71.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 4.2 4.7 g/kg 56 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 6.4 7.1 g/kg 83 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2780 3100 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2710 3020 kcal/kg - 200 2320 -2760 5 210 2590 -3100 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.6 13 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 11.3 12.7 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.81 0.91 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 210 235 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3430 3830 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3200 3570 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 14.4 16 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.4 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 73.9 % 71.8-74.1 2
N digestibility rabbit - 69.3 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 3030 3380 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 12.7 14.1 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 56.5 % 53.8-59.2 2
N digestibility salmonids - 84.2 % 80.8-87.6 2
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.9 8.8 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.2 3.2 -11.2 256 1.3 3.7 -12.9 167 0.4 1.4-4 178
Threonine 9.9 11 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.1 4.9 -13.1 118 1.3 5.6 -15.6 106 0.3 2.2-4.8 114
Methionine 5.2 5.8 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.7 2.5 -7.1 121 0.8 2.9 -8.1 109 0.2 1.1-2.5 117
Cystine 5.5 6.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.7 3.7 -6.7 115 0.8 4.1 -7.6 103 0.2 1.6-2.4 111
Methionine + cystine 10.6 11.9 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.3 7.6 -13.7 115 1.5 8.5 -15.5 102 0.4 3.2-5 110
Tryptophan 2 2.3 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 0.8 -2.8 101 0.4 1 -3.1 94 0.1 0.4-0.9 101
Isoleucine 9.9 11.1 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.4 3.8 -14.8 120 1.5 4.4 -16.7 108 0.4 1.7-4.6 116
Valine 13.5 15 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.6 5.5 -17.7 117 1.8 6.3 -20.2 105 0.5 2.4-5.7 113
Leucine 30.3 33.8 g/kg 11.1 g/16g N 3.6 15.8 -44.9 118 3.9 18.2 -51.2 106 0.8 7-13.3 114
Phenylalanine 12.4 13.8 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.6 6.3 -17.2 114 1.7 7.2 -19.6 106 0.3 2.8-5.7 114
Tyrosine 8.6 9.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1.1 8 -12.8 64 1.3 9.1 -14.6 51 0.3 3-4.5 64
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 21 23.4 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 2.6 17.9 -30 64 2.8 20.2 -34.2 50 0.5 7.3-9.6 63
Histidine 7.4 8.2 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.9 3.1 -9.4 113 1 3.5 -10.7 106 0.2 1.4-3.2 113
Arginine 11.1 12.4 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.4 5 -15 116 1.5 5.7 -16.8 104 0.4 2.2-5.1 112
Alanine 18.5 20.7 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 2.5 14.2 -26.9 96 2.7 16.2 -30.4 80 0.4 5.5-7.7 92
Aspartic acid 17.3 19.3 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 2.3 13.9 -25.5 94 2.5 15.5 -28.8 79 0.4 5.1-7.3 90
Glutamic acid 40.3 45 g/kg 14.8 g/16g N 8.1 26.3 -60 88 9 29.3 -68.4 77 2 11.4-18.3 89
Glycine 10.9 12.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.3 8.7 -16.5 92 1.4 9.5 -18.6 80 0.3 3.4-4.7 93
Serine 11.8 13.2 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.8 9.1 -16.6 97 2 10.5 -19 80 0.5 3.4-5.9 93
Proline 21.2 23.7 g/kg 7.8 g/16g N 2.8 14.9 -28 94 3.1 16.6 -30.6 77 0.6 5.5-9.1 90
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 62 % 7 44-78 35
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.7 g/kg 70 % 4 62-77 35
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 82 % 3 74-89 35
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 73 % 4 66-81 35
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.2 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.6 g/kg 73 % 8 56-88 35
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.5 8.3 g/kg 75 % 4 67-83 35
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.2 g/kg 75 % 4 67-87 35
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 25 27.9 g/kg 83 % 3 75-89 35
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.2 g/kg 81 % 3 74-87 35
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.6 g/kg 80 % 3 75-84 11
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 16.8 18.8 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 77 % 4 70-84 35
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10 g/kg 81 % 5 74-91 35
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 14.4 16.1 g/kg 78 % 4 70-83 34
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12 13.4 g/kg 69 % 4 62-75 34
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 31.7 35.4 g/kg 79 % 5 67-87 34
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.2 8 g/kg 66 % 9 53-85 34
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10.1 g/kg 77 % 4 70-83 34
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 13.3 14.8 g/kg 63 % 20 47-121 34
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.2 g/kg 70 % 1 8 52-82 22
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.1 7.9 g/kg 72 % 1 5 63-81 22
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5 g/kg 86 % 1 8 63-98 22
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 4.9 g/kg 80 % 1 7 67-92 21
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 9.9 g/kg 83 % 4 77-87 6
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 85 % 6 73-90 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8 8.9 g/kg 81 % 1 5 69-86 22
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.6 11.8 g/kg 79 % 1 4 71-85 22
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.9 28.9 g/kg 86 % 1 5 69-93 22
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.4 11.6 g/kg 84 % 1 4 77-90 18
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.2 8 g/kg 84 % 1 6 69-90 13
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.6 19.7 g/kg 84 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.4 g/kg 77 % 1 7 67-89 18
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10.3 g/kg 83 % 1 5 75-90 22
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 15 16.7 g/kg 81 % 1 6 68-89 21
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 12.5 13.9 g/kg 72 % 1 6 61-81 20
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 34.5 38.5 g/kg 86 % 1 4 78-93 21
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.3 g/kg 68 % 1 13 34-81 11
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.6 10.7 g/kg 81 % 1 4 73-87 22
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 17.5 19.5 g/kg 82 % 1 6 64-91 21
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 12.52 13.97 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.04 2.28 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 824 920 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0101 0.0112 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 42.14 47.01 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0009 0.001 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, ex port of delivery (Brest, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 9.48 10.58 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.47 2.75 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 738 823 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0088 0.0098 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 30.39 33.9 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0003 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML