Maize distillers grains with solubles, ethanol production, dried

Byproduct of alcohol (ethanol) manufacture, obtained from the distillery of maize grains (Zea mays L.), consisting of spent grains and steepwater solubles in variable proportions. Other names and alternative spellings: dried distillers grains with solubles, maize DDGS, corn DDGS, maize distillers' grains, maize distiller's grains, corn distillers.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 89.6 100 % - 2.4 80.7 -95.8 916 2.2
Crude protein 27.1 30.3 % - 1.6 21.7 -37.3 975 1.7 24.6 -41.6 924
Crude fibre 7.1 7.9 % - 1 4.6 -11.2 561 1.1 5.1 -12.2 532
Crude fat 11.1 12.3 % - 1.8 6.1 -17 368 2 6.7 -18.5 352
Crude fat, hydrolysis 12.5 14 % - 1.4 7.1 -15.5 516 1.6 8 -17.4 485
Ash 4.4 4.9 % - 0.7 1.2 -7.8 617 0.8 1.3 -8.6 586
NDF 31.9 35.6 % - 6.1 19.6 -45.2 105 6.8 22.7 -51.1 101
ADF 9.4 10.5 % - 3.3 4.7 -21.9 134 3.7 5.2 -26.9 136
Lignin 2.7 3 % - 1.2 0.9 -4.7 39 1.3 1 -5.1 40
Water insoluble cell walls 31.3 34.9 % - 1
Starch 4.6 5.2 % - 1.8 0.3 -16 604 2 0.3 -18 564
Total sugars 1.7 1.9 % - 1.3 0.3 -4.6 20 1.5 0.3 -5 17
Gross energy (kcal) 4630 5170 kcal/kg - 240 4160 -5150 37 260 4770 -5700 42
Gross energy (MJ) 19.4 21.6 MJ/kg - 1 17.4 -21.6 37 1.1 19.9 -23.9 42
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.6 0.7 g/kg - 0.9 0.07 -5.7 108 1 0.08 -6.4 101
Phosphorus 7.6 8.5 g/kg - 1.1 3.9 -9.9 173 1.2 4.2 -11 165
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.1 g/kg 25 % P 1 1 1
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 0.7 0.8 -6.2 73 0.8 0.9 -7 84
Potassium 9.7 10.9 g/kg - 1.9 2.7 -13.1 103 2.1 3 -14.9 77
Sodium 2.64 2.95 g/kg - 1.49 0.09 -8.6 262 1.66 0.1 -9.39 226
Chlorine 1.7 1.9 g/kg - 0.4 1.1 -3.5 75 0.5 1.2 -4 76
Sulfur 6.1 6.8 g/kg - 2.3 2.7 -17.3 67 2.5 3.1 -19.3 78
Dietary cation-anion difference -65 -73 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 317 354 mEq/kg -
Manganese 20 23 mg/kg - 15 4 -107 74 16 5 -123 84
Zinc 60 66 mg/kg - 27 32 -232 66 30 37 -254 76
Copper 5 6 mg/kg - 2 3 -12 66 3 0 -13 76
Iron 111 124 mg/kg - 56 46 -352 66 62 54 -436 76
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.3 0 -0.8 10 0.3 0 -0.9 9
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 2 2 mg/kg - 0.7 0.7 -3 13
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.1-0.3 2
C16:0 palmitic acid 9.9 11 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 1.7 1.9 g/kg 1.8 % FA 1
C18:1 oleic acid 24.5 27.3 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 55.8 62.3 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.2 1.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 9.4 10.5 g/kg 75 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.9 1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0.5 0.6 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 39 43 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 7 8 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 13 14 µg/kg -
Niacin 74 83 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 14 15 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Choline 2254 2517 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 53 60 mg/kg - 14 14 -103 106 15 16 -98 40
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 390 440 IU/kg - 260 -530 2 300 -580 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.23 1.37 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.23 1.38 per kg -
PDIA Systali 105 118 g/kg -
PDI Systali 154 172 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 66 74 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.249 0.278 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 3230 3610 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 2160 2410 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 2170 2420 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 13.5 15.1 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 9 10.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 9.1 10.1 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 83 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 83.6 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 57 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 63 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 83 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.4 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 11.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.6 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.25 1.4 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.27 1.41 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 94 105 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 144 161 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 75 84 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.17 1.31 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.17 1.31 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 120 134 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 167 187 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 51 57 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.16 1.3 per kg - 1
UFV INRA 2007 1.14 1.28 per kg - 1
PDIA INRA 2007 119 133 g/kg - 1
PDIN INRA 2007 199 222 g/kg - 1
PDIE INRA 2007 161 179 g/kg - 1
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 3130 3500 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 13.1 14.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.4 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 85.2 %
N digestibility ruminants - 77.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 56 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 25 % 6 12-29 6
Potentially degradable N (b) - 60 % 10 56-83 6
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.018 0.019-0.068 6
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 89 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 78 % 1
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 17 % 1
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.136 h-1 1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 40 % 4 32-40 5
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 49 % 10 44-70 5
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.06 h-1 0.016 0.026-0.062 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 77.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.2 5.8 g/kg 68 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.3 0.4 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.2 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.5 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3080 3440 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2900 3240 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2030 2260 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3520 3930 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3250 3630 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2290 2560 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.9 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 12.1 13.5 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.5 9.5 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.7 16.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 13.6 15.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.6 10.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.6 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 76 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 80 %
N digestibility growing pig - 62.4 %
N digestibility adult pig - 72.1 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 62 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 71.9 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 4.2 4.7 g/kg 56 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2660 2970 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2600 2900 kcal/kg - 200 2320 -2760 5 210 2590 -3100 5
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 11.1 12.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 10.9 12.1 MJ/kg - 0.8 9.7 -11.6 5 0.9 10.9 -13 5
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 70 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.81 0.9 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 209 234 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3420 3820 kcal/kg - 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3190 3560 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 14.3 16 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.3 14.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 73.9 % 71.8-74.1 2
N digestibility rabbit - 69.3 % 1
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2820 3150 kcal/kg - 3070 -3230 2
DE salmonids (MJ) 11.8 13.2 MJ/kg - 12.8 -13.5 2
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 56.5 % 53.8-59.2 2
N digestibility salmonids - 84.2 % 80.8-87.6 2
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 7.9 8.8 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N 1.2 3.2 -11.2 196 1.4 3.7 -12.9 150 0.4 1.4-4 160
Threonine 9.8 11 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.1 4.9 -13.1 118 1.2 5.6 -15.6 105 0.3 2.2-4.8 113
Methionine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.7 2.5 -7.1 121 0.8 2.9 -8.1 108 0.2 1.1-2.5 116
Cystine 5.4 6.1 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.7 3.7 -6.7 115 0.8 4.1 -7.6 102 0.2 1.6-2.4 110
Methionine + cystine 10.6 11.8 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 1.3 7.6 -13.7 104 1.5 8.5 -15.5 96 0.4 3.2-5 104
Tryptophan 2 2.2 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N 0.3 0.8 -2.8 101 0.4 1 -3.1 94 0.1 0.4-0.9 101
Isoleucine 9.9 11 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 1.4 3.8 -14.8 120 1.5 4.4 -16.7 107 0.4 1.7-4.6 115
Valine 13.4 15 g/kg 4.9 g/16g N 1.6 5.5 -17.7 117 1.8 6.3 -20.2 104 0.5 2.4-5.7 112
Leucine 30.1 33.6 g/kg 11.1 g/16g N 3.5 15.8 -44.9 118 3.9 18.2 -51.2 105 0.8 7-13.3 113
Phenylalanine 12.3 13.8 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 1.6 6.3 -17.2 114 1.7 7.2 -19.6 105 0.3 2.8-5.7 113
Tyrosine 8.6 9.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1.1 8 -12.8 64 1.3 9.1 -14.6 50 0.3 3-4.5 63
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 20.9 23.3 g/kg 7.7 g/16g N 2.4 17.9 -30 45 2.7 20.2 -34.2 37 0.4 7.3-9.4 45
Histidine 7.4 8.2 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.9 3.1 -9.4 113 1 3.5 -10.7 105 0.2 1.4-3.2 112
Arginine 11 12.3 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 1.4 5 -15 116 1.5 5.7 -16.8 103 0.4 2.2-5.1 111
Alanine 18.4 20.6 g/kg 6.8 g/16g N 2.5 14.2 -26.9 96 2.7 16.2 -30.4 79 0.4 5.5-7.7 91
Aspartic acid 17.2 19.2 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 2.3 13.9 -25.5 94 2.5 15.5 -28.8 78 0.4 5.1-7.3 89
Glutamic acid 40.1 44.8 g/kg 14.8 g/16g N 8.1 26.3 -60 88 9 29.3 -68.4 76 2 11.4-18.3 88
Glycine 10.9 12.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1.3 8.7 -16.5 92 1.5 9.5 -18.6 79 0.3 3.4-4.7 92
Serine 11.8 13.1 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1.8 9.1 -16.6 97 2 10.5 -19 79 0.5 3.4-5.9 92
Proline 21.1 23.6 g/kg 7.8 g/16g N 3.5 1.9 -28 95 3.9 2.3 -30.6 77 1 0.7-9.1 90
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.5 g/kg 62 % 7 44-78 35
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.7 g/kg 70 % 4 62-77 35
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.7 g/kg 82 % 3 74-89 35
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.4 g/kg 73 % 4 66-81 35
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.6 g/kg 73 % 8 56-88 35
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.3 g/kg 75 % 4 67-83 35
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 10 11.2 g/kg 75 % 4 67-87 35
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 24.8 27.7 g/kg 83 % 3 75-89 35
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 9.9 11.1 g/kg 81 % 3 74-87 35
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.8 7.6 g/kg 80 % 3 75-84 11
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 16.8 18.7 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.3 g/kg 77 % 4 70-84 35
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10 g/kg 81 % 5 74-91 35
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 14.3 16 g/kg 78 % 4 70-83 34
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 11.9 13.3 g/kg 69 % 4 62-75 34
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 31.6 35.3 g/kg 79 % 5 67-87 34
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8 g/kg 66 % 9 53-85 34
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10 g/kg 77 % 4 70-83 34
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 13.2 14.8 g/kg 63 % 20 47-121 34
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.2 g/kg 70 % 8 52-82 21
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.1 7.9 g/kg 72 % 5 63-81 21
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5 g/kg 87 % 6 80-98 21
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 4.9 g/kg 80 % 7 67-92 20
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.9 9.9 g/kg 84 % 4 77-87 6
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 85 % 6 73-90 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8 8.9 g/kg 81 % 5 69-86 21
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.6 11.8 g/kg 79 % 4 71-85 21
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 25.9 29 g/kg 86 % 4 81-93 21
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 10.4 11.6 g/kg 84 % 4 78-90 17
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.1 g/kg 85 % 4 79-90 12
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 17.7 19.7 g/kg 85 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.4 g/kg 78 % 7 67-89 17
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.2 10.2 g/kg 83 % 5 75-90 21
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 15.1 16.8 g/kg 82 % 5 70-89 20
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 12.5 14 g/kg 73 % 5 61-81 19
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 34.5 38.5 g/kg 86 % 4 78-93 20
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.7 g/kg 72 % 6 63-81 10
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 9.5 10.6 g/kg 81 % 4 73-87 21
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 17.4 19.4 g/kg 83 % 6 64-91 20
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 10.63 11.86 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.43 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 811 905 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0094 0.0105 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 2.15 2.4 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.75 0.84 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, ex port of delivery (Brest, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 12.66 14.13 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.97 2.2 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 851 951 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0106 0.0119 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 6.96 7.78 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.87 0.97 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML