Maize, flaked

Flaked or rolled maize grain (Zea mays L.). Other name: flaked corn, rolled corn (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.3 100 % -
Crude protein 7.6 8.8 % -
Crude fibre 2.3 2.6 % -
Crude fat 3.6 4.1 % -
Ash 1.2 1.4 % -
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % -
NDF 10.7 12.4 % -
ADF 2.6 3.1 % -
Lignin 0.5 0.6 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 8.3 9.6 % -
Starch 63.8 73.9 % -
Starch, enzymatic method 59.3 68.8 % -
Total sugars 1.7 2 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3840 4450 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.6 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.4 0.5 g/kg -
Phosphorus 2.5 2.9 g/kg -
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Magnesium 1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 3.1 3.6 g/kg -
Sodium 0.03 0.04 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.5 0.6 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.1 1.3 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 67 77 mEq/kg -
Manganese 9 10 mg/kg -
Zinc 20 24 mg/kg -
Copper 3 3 mg/kg -
Iron 35 40 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.05 0.05 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.2 3.8 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.6 g/kg 1.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 8 9.3 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.3 21.2 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.6 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.1 3.6 g/kg 86 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.3 2.7 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 17.1 19.8 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 3.6 4.1 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1.4 1.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 4.6 5.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 20.7 24 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 5.8 6.7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Choline 532 617 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 23 26 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.6 mL/g
Phytase activity 20 20 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.11 1.29 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.14 1.33 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 44 52 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 96 111 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -65 -76 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.162 0.188 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2880 3340 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1960 2270 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2010 2330 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.7 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.9 9.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 9.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 89.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 35 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 71 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 87 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.9 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.1 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.13 1.31 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.16 1.35 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 41 48 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 94 109 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -65 -75 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.08 1.25 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.1 1.27 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 48 56 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 98 114 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -67 -78 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.09 1.26 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.22 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.11 1.28 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.23 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 51 59 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 62 72 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 89 104 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2870 3320 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.5 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 12 13.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 91 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 %
N digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 33 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 11 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 75 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.025 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 86 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 13 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 87 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.31 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 1090 1264 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 1213 1406 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 103 119 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 -70 -82 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 5.9 6.9 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 2.6 3 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 77 89.3 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.44 3.99 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.81 2.1 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.99 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.94 2.25 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.34 1.56 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 65 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 70 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 7.7 8.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 141 163 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -10 -12 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3400 3950 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 3320 3850 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 2680 3110 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3530 4090 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3430 3980 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2740 3180 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.3 16.5 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 13.9 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 13 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.8 17.1 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.4 16.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.5 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 88.7 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 91.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 91.3 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 94.2 %
N digestibility growing pig - 80.5 %
N digestibility adult pig - 90.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 86 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 80 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.7 0.8 g/kg 28 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 1.1 1.2 g/kg 42 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3160 3660 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3090 3590 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 15.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 15.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 15 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 15 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Available P broiler 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 89.7 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.12 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 56 65 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3200 3710 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 3120 3620 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.4 15.5 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 13.1 15.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 83.4 %
N digestibility rabbit - 71.4 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1500 1740 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.3 7.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 39 %
N digestibility salmonids - 95 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N
Threonine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.9 2.2 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.5 0.6 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N
Isoleucine 2.8 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N
Valine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Leucine 9.3 10.8 g/kg 12.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Tyrosine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.9 8 g/kg 9 g/16g N
Histidine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N
Arginine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Alanine 5.6 6.5 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 4.9 5.7 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 14.1 16.3 g/kg 18.5 g/16g N
Glycine 2.9 3.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Proline 7 8.2 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2.1 g/kg 79 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.7 g/kg 81 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.7 g/kg 89 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 87 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.6 g/kg 88 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.4 0.5 g/kg 83 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 87 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 86 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.8 g/kg 91 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 90 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 2.9 3.3 g/kg 89 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 6.2 7.1 g/kg 90 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 87 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.3 3.8 g/kg 89 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.8 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 4.3 4.9 g/kg 86 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 12.9 14.9 g/kg 91 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 81 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 88 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 6.1 7.1 g/kg 87 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.1 2.4 g/kg 90 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 83 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 94 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 86 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 90 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.4 0.5 g/kg 85 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.6 3 g/kg 93 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 90 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 10.1 g/kg 94 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 4 g/kg 93 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.8 3.3 g/kg 88 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 6.2 7.2 g/kg 91 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 90 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.4 3.9 g/kg 93 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 6.1 g/kg 93 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 89 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 13.4 15.5 g/kg 95 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 86 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 91 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 6.4 7.4 g/kg 91 %
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