Maize, flaked

Flaked or rolled maize grain (Zea mays L.). Other name: flaked corn, rolled corn (USA).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.3 100 % -
Crude protein 7.6 8.9 % -
Crude fibre 2.3 2.6 % -
Crude fat 3.6 4.1 % -
Ash 1.2 1.4 % -
Insoluble ash 0.05 0.06 % -
NDF 10.7 12.5 % -
ADF 2.7 3.1 % -
Lignin 0.5 0.6 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 8.3 9.6 % -
Starch 63.8 73.9 % -
Total sugars 1.7 2 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3840 4450 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.1 18.6 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.4 0.5 g/kg -
Phosphorus 2.5 2.9 g/kg -
Phytate phosphorus 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Magnesium 1.1 1.2 g/kg -
Potassium 3.1 3.6 g/kg -
Sodium 0.04 0.04 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.5 0.6 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.1 1.3 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference -0.8 -0.9 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 67 77 mEq/kg -
Manganese 8 10 mg/kg -
Zinc 21 24 mg/kg -
Copper 3 3 mg/kg -
Iron 35 40 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.05 0.05 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0.4 0.5 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.2 3.7 g/kg 10.5 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.5 0.6 g/kg 1.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 7.9 9.1 g/kg 26.1 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.9 20.8 g/kg 59.5 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3 3.5 g/kg 85 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 2.3 2.7 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 17 20 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4 4 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1 2 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 21 24 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 6 7 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.06 0.07 mg/kg -
Choline 532 617 mg/kg -
Xanthophylls 23 26 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.6 mL/g
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 1.07 1.24 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 1.09 1.26 per kg -
PDIA Systali 45 52 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 95 110 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -64 -74 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.162 0.188 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2790 3240 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1880 2180 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1920 2220 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 11.7 13.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.9 9.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 8 9.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 87.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 84.7 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 35 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 87 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 71 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.8 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.6 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 10.2 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.4 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 1.09 1.26 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 1.11 1.29 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 41 48 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 93 108 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -63 -73 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 1.03 1.2 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 1.05 1.21 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 49 56 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 97 113 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -66 -76 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.22 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 1.06 1.23 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 51 59 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 62 72 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 88 102 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2790 3230 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 86 %
N digestibility ruminants - 65.4 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 90 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 33 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 11 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 75 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.025 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 86 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 13 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 87 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.31 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 1.9 2.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.2 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.3 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.6 % PDIE
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3160 3660 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3090 3580 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.2 15.3 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 12.9 15 MJ/kg -
Available P broiler 0.6 0.7 g/kg 24 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.11 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 56 65 g/kg -
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 3.1 g/16g N
Threonine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N
Methionine 1.6 1.9 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N
Cystine 1.9 2.2 g/kg 2.5 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 3.5 4.1 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0.5 0.6 g/kg 0.7 g/16g N
Isoleucine 2.8 3.3 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N
Valine 3.8 4.5 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Leucine 9.3 10.8 g/kg 12.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 3.7 4.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Tyrosine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.9 8 g/kg 9 g/16g N
Histidine 2.2 2.6 g/kg 2.9 g/16g N
Arginine 3.7 4.2 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N
Alanine 5.7 6.6 g/kg 7.4 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 5 5.8 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 14.1 16.4 g/kg 18.5 g/16g N
Glycine 3 3.4 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N
Serine 3.8 4.4 g/kg 5 g/16g N
Proline 7.1 8.2 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N
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