Palm oil

Oil extracted from the pulp (mesocarp) of palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). Palm oil is a different product from palm kernel oil, which is extracted from the fruit kernels.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 99.8 100 % - 0.3 95.4 -100 690 0.5
Crude protein 0 0 % - 1 1
Crude fibre 0 0 % -
Crude fat 99.7 99.9 % - 0.5 97.2 -100 113 0.3 98.6 -100 31
Ash 0 0 % - 0 -0 2 0 -0 2
Insoluble ash 0 0 % - 1 1
NDF 0 0 % -
ADF 0 0 % -
Lignin 0 0 % -
Water insoluble cell walls 0 0 % -
Starch 0 0 % -
Starch, enzymatic method 0 0 % -
Total sugars 0 0 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 9370 9380 kcal/kg - 9370 -9740 4
Gross energy (MJ) 39.2 39.3 MJ/kg - 39.2 -40.8 4
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0 0 g/kg -
Phosphorus 0 0 g/kg -
Phytate phosphorus 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Magnesium 0 0 g/kg -
Potassium 0 0 g/kg -
Sodium 0 0 g/kg -
Chlorine 0 0 g/kg -
Sulfur 0 0 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 0 0 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 0 0 mEq/kg -
Manganese 0 0 mg/kg -
Zinc 0 0 mg/kg -
Copper 0 0 mg/kg -
Iron 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 0 -12 2 0 -12 2
Selenium 0 0 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0 0 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 0 0 mg/kg -
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 1.6 1.6 g/kg 0.2 % FA 2.2 0 -2 3 2.2 0 -6 6 0.3 0-1.6 47
C14:0 myristic acid 9.5 9.5 g/kg 1 % FA 3.4 9 -18.5 5 3.4 9 -18.5 6 0.3 0-1.9 48
C16:0 palmitic acid 402 403 g/kg 43.5 % FA 30.4 394 -487 6 30.4 394 -488 7 1.5 39.7-48.8 48
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.9 0.9 g/kg 0.09 % FA 0 -1 3 0 -1.5 4 0.3 0-1.7 44
C18:0 stearic acid 40.9 41 g/kg 4.4 % FA 4.1 38.9 -53 6 4.1 38.9 -49 7 0.5 2.5-5.7 48
C18:1 oleic acid 367 367 g/kg 39.7 % FA 6.8 365 -384 4 6.6 365 -384 6 1.5 37-43.1 48
C18:2 linoleic acid 92.6 92.8 g/kg 10 % FA 14.8 79.2 -125 4 14.8 79.3 -125 6 0.9 7.9-12.5 54
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.4 2.4 g/kg 0.3 % FA 2.8 0 -5 3 2.8 0 -7 6 0.2 0-0.7 53
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C20:0 arachidic acid 3.4 3.4 g/kg 0.4 % FA 2.9 0 -7 5 0.2 0-0.9 46
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 1 1 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0.09 0-0.4 42
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
Fatty acids 92.4 92.5 % 93 % fat 2.4 86.7 -93.1 7 2.4 86.8 -93.2 6 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 159 159 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.08 0.08 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 0 0 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 0 0 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 3 3 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 0 0 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Phytase activity 0 0 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 3.61 3.61 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 3.93 3.94 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.246 0.246 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 8750 8770 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 6350 6360 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 6920 6930 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 36.6 36.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 26.6 26.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 29 29 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 88.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 99.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 3.57 3.58 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 3.89 3.89 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 3.46 3.47 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 3.74 3.75 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 2.72 2.73 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 2.72 2.73 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 2.78 2.78 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 2.78 2.78 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 0 0 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 0 0 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 0 0 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 7120 7130 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 29.8 29.8 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 29.8 29.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88 %
N digestibility ruminants - 0 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 0 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 0 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 0 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 0 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 0 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 0 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 90 %
Absorbable P ruminants 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0 0 g/kg 0 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 0 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 3443 3448 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 4037 4043 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 -17 -17 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 15 15 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 0 0 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 0 0 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 193 193 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 8.06 8.08 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 5.98 5.99 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 5.71 5.72 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 4.94 4.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 3.66 3.67 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 0 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 0 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 19.2 19.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 152 152 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE -24 -24 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 8240 8250 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 8200 8210 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 7100 7110 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 8240 8250 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 8190 8200 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 7100 7110 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 34.5 34.5 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 34.3 34.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 29.7 29.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 34.5 34.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 34.3 34.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 29.7 29.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 88 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 88 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 85 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 85 %
N digestibility growing pig - 0 %
N digestibility adult pig - 0 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 0 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 85 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 7960 7970 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 7020 7040 kcal/kg - 1 5980 -8600 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 33.3 33.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 29.4 29.4 MJ/kg - 1
Available P cockerel 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Available P broiler 0 0 g/kg 0 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 88 %
Horse Forage Unit 2.96 2.96 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 0 0 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 7960 7970 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 7920 7930 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 33.3 33.4 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 33.2 33.2 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 85 %
N digestibility rabbit - 0 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 8990 9000 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 37.6 37.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 96 %
N digestibility salmonids - 0 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Threonine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Methionine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Cystine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Methionine + cystine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Tryptophan 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Isoleucine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Valine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Leucine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Phenylalanine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Tyrosine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Histidine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Arginine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Alanine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Aspartic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Glycine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Serine 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Proline 0 0 g/kg 0 g/16g N
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 0 0 g/kg 0 %
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.7 2.7 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 6872 6883 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.009 0.009 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 38.21 38.27 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.99 4.99 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 7022 7033 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0125 0.0125 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 46.1 46.17 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.75 2.75 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4628 4635 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0088 0.0089 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 37.73 37.79 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.04 5.04 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4777 4785 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0124 0.0124 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 45.62 45.69 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.84 2.84 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 384 385 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0086 0.0086 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 36.82 36.87 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0001 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.13 5.14 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.16 2.16 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 534 535 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0122 0.0122 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 44.71 44.78 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0002 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML