Palm oil

Oil extracted from the pulp (mesocarp) of palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. or Elaeis melanococca auct.). Palm oil is a different product from palm kernel oil, which is extracted from the fruit kernels.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 99.8 100 % - 0.6 95.4 -100 661 0.5
Crude protein 0 0 % - 1 1
Crude fibre 0 0 % -
Crude fat 99.7 99.9 % - 0.5 97.2 -100 113 0.3 98.6 -100 31
Ash 0 0 % - 0 -0 2 0 -0 2
Starch 0 0 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 9370 9380 kcal/kg - 9370 -9740 4
Gross energy (MJ) 39.2 39.3 MJ/kg - 39.2 -40.8 4
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C12:0 lauric acid 1.8 1.8 g/kg 0.2 % FA 2.2 0 -2 3 2.2 0 -6 6 0.3 0-1.6 47
C14:0 myristic acid 10.2 10.3 g/kg 1 % FA 3.4 9 -18.5 5 3.4 9 -18.5 6 0.3 0-1.9 48
C16:0 palmitic acid 434 435 g/kg 43.5 % FA 30.4 394 -487 6 30.4 394 -488 7 1.5 39.7-48.8 48
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.9 0.9 g/kg 0.09 % FA 0 -1 3 0 -1.5 4 0.3 0-1.7 44
C18:0 stearic acid 44.2 44.3 g/kg 4.4 % FA 4.1 38.9 -53 6 4.1 38.9 -49 7 0.5 2.5-5.7 48
C18:1 oleic acid 396 397 g/kg 39.7 % FA 1.5 37-43.1 48
C18:2 linoleic acid 100 100 g/kg 10 % FA 14.8 79.2 -125 4 14.8 79.3 -125 6 0.9 7.9-12.5 54
C18:3 linolenic acid 2.5 2.5 g/kg 0.3 % FA 2.8 0 -5 3 2.8 0 -7 6 0.2 0-0.7 53
C20:0 arachidic acid 3.7 3.7 g/kg 0.4 % FA 2.9 0 -7 5 0.2 0-0.9 46
C22:1 erucic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA 0 -0 2 0 -0 2 0-0 2
Fatty acids 99.7 99.9 g/kg 100 % fat 1
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 144 145 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 95 95 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.08 0.08 mg/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 3.61 3.61 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 3.93 3.94 per kg -
PDIA Systali 0 0 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 -14 -14 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.246 0.246 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 8750 8770 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 6350 6360 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 6920 6930 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 36.6 36.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 26.6 26.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 29 29 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 88.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 99.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 0 %
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 3.57 3.58 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 3.89 3.89 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 -14 -14 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 3.46 3.47 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 3.74 3.75 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 0 0 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 -14 -14 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 2.72 2.73 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 2.78 2.78 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 7120 7130 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 29.8 29.8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 90 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 88 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 0 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 0 %
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 7960 7970 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (kcal) 7910 7930 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 7100 7110 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 7960 7970 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 7910 7920 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 7100 7110 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 33.3 33.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 33.1 33.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 29.7 29.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 33.3 33.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 33.1 33.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 29.7 29.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 85 % 1
Energy digestibility adult pig - 85 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 85 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 85 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 85 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 7960 7970 kcal/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 7020 7040 kcal/kg - 1 5980 -8600 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 33.3 33.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 29.4 29.4 MJ/kg - 1 25 -36 3
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 88 %
Energy digestibility horse - 88 %
Horse Forage Unit 2.96 2.96 per kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.94 2.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.18 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 390 390 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0087 0.0087 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 9.43 9.45 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.4 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, not associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.22 5.23 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.19 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 538 539 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0123 0.0123 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 9.69 9.7 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.41 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.79 2.79 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.19 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 6877 6888 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0091 0.0091 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.45 3.45 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.4 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, associated to deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.07 5.08 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.19 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 7026 7037 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0126 0.0126 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.71 3.71 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.4 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.84 2.85 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.19 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4633 4640 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0089 0.009 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.52 5.53 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.4 m²yr/kg -
Origin Malaysia, processed in Malaysia, average deforestation, ex port of delivery (Sète, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.13 5.13 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 2.18 2.19 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 4782 4789 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0125 0.0125 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.77 5.78 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 1.4 1.4 m²yr/kg -
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