Sorghum

Sorghum grain (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The nutritional values for monogastric animals correspond to low-tannin varieties.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.9 100 % - 4.8 79.1 -96.5 669 4.4
Crude protein 9.2 10.5 % - 0.9 6.5 -13.8 869 1 7.2 -15.1 686
Crude fibre 2.5 2.8 % - 0.5 1.4 -5.9 176 0.6 1.6 -6.6 133
Crude fat 2.9 3.3 % - 0.4 1.9 -4.4 193 0.4 2.5 -5 131
Ash 1.9 2.1 % - 0.7 0.7 -4.1 307 0.8 0.8 -4.5 309
Insoluble ash 0.3 0.3 % - 0.3 0 -1.3 70 0.4 0 -1.5 71
NDF 9.7 11 % - 1.8 5.8 -14 67 2.1 6.6 -16.3 93
ADF 3.8 4.3 % - 1 2.2 -6.2 67 1.1 2.5 -7.1 88
Lignin 1 1.1 % - 0.6 0.2 -2.3 88 0.7 0.2 -3.5 109
Water insoluble cell walls 7.1 8 % - 1.1 4.4 -9.1 72 1.3 5.2 -11.6 56
Starch 64.6 73.5 % - 2.5 56.6 -68.7 490 1.7 63.6 -80.9 314
Total sugars 1.1 1.3 % - 0.6 0.09 -2.9 85 0.6 0.1 -3 89
Gross energy (kcal) 3930 4470 kcal/kg - 140 3740 -4230 41 80 4290 -4680 67
Gross energy (MJ) 16.5 18.7 MJ/kg - 0.6 15.7 -17.7 41 0.3 17.9 -19.6 67
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 0.3 0.3 g/kg - 0.2 0 -1.2 165 0.3 0 -1.4 171
Phosphorus 3 3.5 g/kg - 0.5 1.6 -4.9 251 0.5 1.8 -5.3 244
Phytate phosphorus 2.1 2.4 g/kg 70 % P 52-86 3
Magnesium 1.5 1.7 g/kg - 0.4 0.9 -2.5 71 0.4 1 -2.9 78
Potassium 3.7 4.2 g/kg - 0.6 2.2 -5.3 77 0.7 2.4 -5.9 80
Sodium 0.16 0.19 g/kg - 0.14 0 -0.45 37 0.16 0 -0.53 40
Chlorine 0.5 0.6 g/kg - 0.2 0.3 -1.1 20 0.2 0.3 -1.2 17
Sulfur 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.06 -1.3 4
Dietary cation-anion difference 31 35 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 86 97 mEq/kg -
Manganese 12 14 mg/kg - 11 0.1 -55 14 13 0.1 -61 21
Zinc 22 24 mg/kg - 10 4 -37 16 11 5 -52 24
Copper 5 6 mg/kg - 4 3 -14 16 4 3 -17 23
Iron 88 100 mg/kg - 112 20 -219 12 127 23 -497 15
Selenium 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 0.4 -0.4 3 0.5 -0.5 3
Cobalt 0.2 0.3 mg/kg - 0.2 0.04 -0.4 7 0.2 0.05 -0.5 8
Molybdenum 1 1 mg/kg - 0.6 0.4 -2 5 0.6 0.5 -2 5
Iodine 0.02 0.02 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 3.5 4 g/kg 13.5 % FA 3.2 -3.6 3 3.7 -4.1 3
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.8 1 g/kg 3.2 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.6 0.7 g/kg 2.3 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 8.7 9.9 g/kg 33.3 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 8.8 10 g/kg 33.8 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 0.7 0.8 g/kg 2.6 % FA 0.4 -0.8 3 0.5 -0.9 3 1.8-3 3
Fatty acids 2.6 3 g/kg 90 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.1 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 10 12 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 4 4 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 1 1 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 5 5 mg/kg - 1 1
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 38 43 mg/kg - 1 1
Pantothenic acid 12 13 mg/kg - 1 1
Folic acid 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 637 725 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 0.3 mL/g
Phytase activity 30 30 IU/kg - 20 -30 3
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 1.06 1.21 per kg -
UFV Systali 1.08 1.23 per kg -
PDIA Systali 41 47 g/kg -
PDI Systali 86 97 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali -42 -48 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.225 0.256 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2800 3180 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1870 2130 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1900 2160 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.9 9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 85.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 83.1 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 43 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 66 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 1.9 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.6 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 10.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 5.3 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.1 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 4.6 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 1.08 1.23 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 1.1 1.25 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 37 43 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 85 96 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali -42 -47 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 1.03 1.17 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 1.03 1.17 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 46 52 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali -44 -50 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.09 -1.25 4
UFV INRA 2007 1.05 1.19 per kg - 1.07 -1.27 4
PDIA INRA 2007 48 55 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 66 75 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 85 97 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2790 3170 kcal/kg - 310 330 2490 -3540 8
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg - 1.3 1.4 10.4 -14.8 8
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 87.1 % 6.8 72.1-91.8 9
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 84.5 % 6.7 69.4-89.2 8
N digestibility ruminants - 67.3 % 1
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 78 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 79 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 40 % 37-46 4
Immediately degradable N (a) - 5 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 73 % 10-80 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.055 h-1 0.026-0.27 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 28 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 72 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.05 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 67 % 63-68 3
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 % 21-46 3
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 59 % 49-67 3
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.038-0.068 3
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 2.3 2.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.2 0.2 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.5 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.7 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.8 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 10.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.3 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.1 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 3430 3900 kcal/kg - 160 3290 -3580 7 130 3610 -4010 9
ME growing pig (kcal) 3340 3800 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2640 3000 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3490 3970 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 3390 3860 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2670 3040 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 14.4 16.3 MJ/kg - 0.7 13.8 -15 7 0.6 15.1 -16.8 9
ME growing pig (MJ) 14 15.9 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 11 12.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 14.6 16.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 14.2 16.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 87.2 % 2.1 86-91.9 7
Energy digestibility adult pig - 88.8 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 89.8 % 89-91 4
OM digestibility adult pig - 91 %
N digestibility growing pig - 74.7 % 5.4 69-86.4 8
N digestibility adult pig - 78.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 79 % 7 64.2-89 14
Crude fat digestibility pig - 54.1 % 50-62 4
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 0.8 0.9 g/kg 25 % 1
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 3310 3770 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 3250 3690 kcal/kg - 190 2770 -3480 6 180 3200 -3760 7
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 13.9 15.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 13.6 15.5 MJ/kg - 0.8 11.6 -14.6 6 0.7 13.4 -15.7 7
Available P broiler 0.7 0.8 g/kg 23 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 90 %
Energy digestibility horse - 86.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 1.13 1.29 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 65 74 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3180 3620 kcal/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (kcal) 3090 3510 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 13.3 15.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.9 14.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 80.9 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 71.2 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 2.2 2.5 g/kg 2.4 g/16g N 0.4 1.4 -3.5 74 0.4 1.6 -3.9 104 0.4 1.4-3.2 107
Threonine 3 3.5 g/kg 3.3 g/16g N 0.5 2.3 -4.4 57 0.6 2.6 -5.3 86 0.3 2.5-4.2 89
Methionine 1.5 1.7 g/kg 1.7 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.3 64 0.4 1.2 -3 77 0.3 1.1-2.2 80
Cystine 1.8 2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N 0.3 1.2 -2.8 40 0.4 1.4 -3.1 53 0.3 1.3-2.6 56
Methionine + cystine 3.3 3.8 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.5 2.8 -5.1 39 0.6 3.2 -6 51 0.5 2.8-4.8 53
Tryptophan 1 1.1 g/kg 1 g/16g N 0.2 0.6 -1.3 31 0.2 0.7 -1.7 42 0.1 0.6-1.2 44
Isoleucine 3.9 4.4 g/kg 4.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.7 -5.4 53 0.8 3 -7.3 83 0.4 3.1-4.9 87
Valine 5 5.7 g/kg 5.4 g/16g N 0.9 3.4 -6.5 51 1 3.8 -8.8 81 0.5 3.8-6.2 85
Leucine 12.6 14.3 g/kg 13.6 g/16g N 2.3 8.6 -17 54 2.6 9.9 -23.6 84 1.2 10.1-15.8 88
Phenylalanine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 5.3 g/16g N 0.9 3.4 -6.7 51 1 3.8 -9.1 81 0.5 4-6.3 85
Tyrosine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.8 1.9 -5.4 40 0.9 2.1 -6.7 69 0.7 2.1-4.9 73
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 8.7 9.9 g/kg 9.4 g/16g N 1.3 7.1 -10.5 20 1.4 8.4 -15.8 48 0.6 7.8-10.3 51
Histidine 2.1 2.4 g/kg 2.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.5 -3.1 49 0.4 1.7 -3.7 78 0.2 1.5-2.9 82
Arginine 3.8 4.3 g/kg 4.1 g/16g N 0.6 2.5 -5.1 53 0.7 2.8 -6.2 80 0.5 2.7-5.2 84
Alanine 8.5 9.7 g/kg 9.2 g/16g N 1.6 6.1 -11.9 48 1.8 6.8 -16.3 75 0.8 7-10.9 78
Aspartic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 1.9 g/16g N
Glutamic acid 19.3 21.9 g/kg 20.9 g/16g N 3.6 14.4 -26.3 46 4.1 16.2 -37.6 73 1.7 16.4-24.8 76
Glycine 2.9 3.3 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 2.1 -4.1 50 0.5 2.3 -5 78 0.4 2.2-4 82
Serine 4.3 4.9 g/kg 4.6 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -6.7 48 0.8 3.9 -7.8 76 0.4 3.4-5.8 79
Proline 7.9 9 g/kg 8.5 g/16g N 1.5 4.9 -9.8 22 1.7 5.5 -14.1 50 0.9 5.5-9.9 53
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.9 g/kg 74 % 0.2 1.5 -2 4 0.3 1.7 -2.4 5 10 53-88 15
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.6 g/kg 76 % 0.6 2.2 -3.4 4 0.7 2.5 -4 5 9 59-91 15
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.3 1.5 g/kg 85 % 0.3 1.1 -1.8 4 0.4 1.3 -2.2 5 6 72-92 14
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 1.4 1.6 g/kg 77 % 1.1 -2 3 1.3 -2.3 4 10 58-89 12
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.7 3 g/kg 81 % 2.5 -3.5 3 2.9 -4.1 3 8 65-90 11
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 0.8 0.9 g/kg 79 % 8 61-84 8
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 83 % 0.8 2.5 -4.6 4 0.9 2.8 -5.4 5 5 74-91 15
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 81 % 0.7 4 -5.7 4 0.8 4.6 -6.8 5 6 71-94 15
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 10.8 12.3 g/kg 86 % 2.5 8.7 -14.9 4 2.8 9.9 -17.6 5 5 77-93 15
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 85 % 0.8 3.5 -5.3 4 0.9 4 -6.3 5 4 77-91 14
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 85 % 0.8 2.5 -4.3 4 0.9 2.8 -5.1 5 6 73-92 14
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 7.4 8.4 g/kg 85 % 5 75-91 11
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 78 % 0.2 1.5 -1.8 4 0.2 1.7 -2.3 5 8 58-85 14
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 3.1 3.5 g/kg 82 % 0.5 2.4 -3.6 4 0.5 2.9 -4.2 5 9 62-94 15
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 6.9 7.8 g/kg 81 % 1.5 6 -9.8 4 1.7 6.9 -11.6 5 5 72-93 15
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 82 % 7 69-92 15
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 16.6 18.9 g/kg 86 % 4.6 12.3 -23.9 4 5.2 14 -28.4 5 5 76-92 15
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 66 % 1 -3 3 1.2 -3.5 4 16 34-82 13
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 81 % 0.7 2.9 -4.8 4 0.8 3.3 -5.7 5 7 69-92 15
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 50 % 4.4 0.7 -8.3 4 5 0.8 -12.8 5 27 9-84 9
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 88 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.9 g/kg 83 % 75-83 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.3 1.5 g/kg 88 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 90 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 89 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 0.8 0.9 g/kg 82 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 90 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 87 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 11.2 12.7 g/kg 89 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5 g/kg 89 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 84 % 78-84 2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 87 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 87 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 89 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 88 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 17.2 19.5 g/kg 89 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 83 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 88 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.3 8.3 g/kg 92 %
Origin France, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.95 3.36 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.07 4.63 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 354 403 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0048 0.0055 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.87 4.4 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.11 2.4 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 4.36 4.96 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4 4.55 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 482 548 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0094 0.0107 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.33 6.07 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.58 2.94 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, conventional farming, ex port of delivery (Brest, France)
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 9.95 11.32 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.37 4.97 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 905 1029 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0145 0.0165 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 6.24 7.1 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.9 3.3 m²yr/kg -
Origin USA, conventional farming, ex storage agency
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 6.55 7.46 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.36 4.96 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 678 771 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0113 0.0129 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 5.9 6.71 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.89 3.29 m²yr/kg -
Origin France, conventional farming, ex field
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 2.21 2.52 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 4.07 4.63 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 315 358 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0046 0.0053 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 3.86 4.39 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 2.11 2.4 m²yr/kg -
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