Wheat bran from starch production

Byproduct of wheat starch production obtained by the wet milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain from which the greater part of the endosperm has been removed.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.6 100 % - 0.8 85.6 -90.2 377 1.3
Crude protein 15.2 17.4 % - 0.7 12.9 -17.2 570 0.8 14.9 -19.3 375
Crude fibre 9 10.3 % - 1.1 5.9 -12.5 563 1.2 7.1 -14.2 368
Crude fat 2.9 3.3 % - 0.4 1 -4.1 204 0.5 1.1 -4.7 133
Ash 4.5 5.1 % - 0.4 3.3 -5.7 335 0.4 3.8 -6.4 217
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.2 % -
NDF 39.1 44.6 % - 3.1 35.2 -43 11 3.5 39.9 -49.6 10
ADF 11.6 13.3 % - 1.1 9.7 -13.9 11 1.2 11 -15 10
Lignin 3.3 3.8 % - 0.3 3.2 -4 9 0.3 3.7 -4.5 9
Water insoluble cell walls 38.3 43.8 % - 1 1
Starch 19.9 22.7 % - 3.9 13.8 -37.6 564 4.4 16.6 -43.2 368
Starch, enzymatic method 16.7 19 % -
Total sugars 6.9 7.9 % -
Gross energy (kcal) 3950 4510 kcal/kg -
Gross energy (MJ) 16.5 18.9 MJ/kg -
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.2 1.3 g/kg -
Phosphorus 8.9 10.2 g/kg - 0.8 7.2 -11.9 52 0.9 8.3 -12.6 23
Phytate phosphorus 7.1 8.1 g/kg 80 % P 0.4 6.4 -7.4 5 0.5 7.2 -8.3 5
Magnesium 3.7 4.2 g/kg -
Potassium 11 12.6 g/kg -
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg -
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.9 2.1 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 145 166 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 263 300 mEq/kg -
Manganese 112 128 mg/kg -
Zinc 76 87 mg/kg -
Copper 11 13 mg/kg -
Iron 144 165 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 2 mg/kg -
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.1 4.7 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.09 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 3.5 4 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 12.9 14.8 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.4 1.5 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.05 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.3 2.6 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 14.9 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.6 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 193 221 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 28.2 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 749 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 1780 2030 IU/kg -
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.8 0.91 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.75 0.86 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.271 0.31 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2220 2540 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1410 1610 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1320 1510 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.9 6.8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.6 6.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 69.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 67.6 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 73 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 60 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.82 0.94 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.78 0.89 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 76 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 31 35 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.76 0.87 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.7 0.8 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 38 44 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 83 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 22 25 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.79 0.91 per kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.79 0.9 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.74 0.85 per kg -
UFV INRA 2007 0.73 0.84 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2007 34 39 g/kg -
PDIN INRA 2007 97 111 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 80 92 g/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2230 2540 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.4 10.7 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 70.9 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 69 %
N digestibility ruminants - 66.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 80 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 %
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 %
Potentially degradable N (b) - 54 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.165 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 78 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 22 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.205 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 42 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.09 h-1
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 71.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.7 7.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 788 900 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 804 918 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 64 73 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 33 37 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.6 4.1 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.5 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 61.8 70.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.8 3.2 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.38 1.58 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.3 1.49 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.71 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.96 1.1 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 24 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 28 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.6 6.4 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 135 154 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 3 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2270 2600 kcal/kg -
ME growing pig (kcal) 2150 2460 kcal/kg -
NE growing pig (kcal) 1510 1720 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2500 2860 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2340 2670 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1640 1870 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 9.5 10.9 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 9 10.3 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.3 7.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 9.8 11.2 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.9 7.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 57.6 %
Energy digestibility adult pig - 63.4 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 61.4 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 66.9 %
N digestibility growing pig - 65.2 %
N digestibility adult pig - 74.2 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 69.3 %
Crude fat digestibility pig - 33.3 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.2 2.5 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4.5 5.1 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1710 1950 kcal/kg -
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1630 1860 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7.2 8.2 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 6.8 7.8 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2.2 2.5 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.2 2.5 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 69.7 %
Energy digestibility horse - 67.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.77 0.89 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 103 118 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2750 3140 kcal/kg -
ME rabbit (kcal) 2640 3020 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 69.5 %
N digestibility rabbit - 50.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2180 2490 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.1 10.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 83.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6 6.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Threonine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tryptophan 2 2.3 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N
Isoleucine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 1 1 1
Valine 6.9 7.8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Leucine 9.3 10.6 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine 6.1 6.9 g/kg 4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Tyrosine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.1 11.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Histidine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 1 1 1
Arginine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Alanine 6.7 7.7 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 1 1
Aspartic acid 10 11.4 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glutamic acid 30.7 35.1 g/kg 20.1 g/16g N 1 1 1
Glycine 7.4 8.4 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 1 1
Serine 6.5 7.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 1 1 1
Proline 10.1 11.6 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 1 1
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.2 4.8 g/kg 69 %
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 66 %
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 77 %
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.7 g/kg 72 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 74 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 76 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 75 %
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 73 %
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8.1 g/kg 76 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 80 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 80 %
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.2 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.2 g/kg 84 %
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 67 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8.1 g/kg 71 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 26.5 30.3 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 66 %
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.6 g/kg 74 %
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.3 g/kg 81 %
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 77 %
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 71 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.1 g/kg 81 %
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 75 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 77 %
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.7 g/kg 77 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 79 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 75 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.2 8.2 g/kg 78 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.4 g/kg 78 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 72 %
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.8 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.4 g/kg 75 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 79 %
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 75 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 75 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 26.6 30.4 g/kg 87 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 72 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 78 %
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 5.5 6.28 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 1.29 1.47 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 335 383 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0051 0.0058 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 21.86 24.97 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.0001 0.0002 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML