Wheat middlings, starch < 20%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing less than 20% starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.3 100 % - 2.4 85 -95.7 280 2.2
Crude protein 15.7 17.8 % - 1.1 9.8 -18.8 326 1.2 13.5 -21.2 276
Crude fibre 7.1 8.1 % - 1.4 2.9 -10 147 1.6 3.4 -11.4 136
Crude fat 3.8 4.3 % - 0.8 0.8 -5.3 334 0.9 0.9 -6.1 344
Ash 3.8 4.3 % - 0.7 2 -5.6 109 0.8 2.3 -6.1 99
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27
NDF 31.7 35.9 % - 5.4 19.9 -43.6 29 6.1 22.7 -50.3 79
ADF 9.2 10.5 % - 2 4.7 -13.1 29 2.3 5.3 -15.2 87
Lignin 2.7 3 % - 0.7 1.2 -3.8 18 0.8 1.4 -4.3 67
Water insoluble cell walls 30.9 35 % - 21.3 -33.6 3 24.3 -38.5 2
Starch 18.9 21.4 % - 0.9 17 -20 121 0.9 19.2 -22.9 113
Total sugars 6.9 7.8 % - 1.6 2.1 -9.5 10 1.9 2.4 -8.2 10
Gross energy (kcal) 4050 4590 kcal/kg - 100 3870 -4290 14 80 4410 -4840 30
Gross energy (MJ) 16.9 19.2 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 14 0.4 18.4 -20.3 30
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -2.1 62 0.4 0.2 -2.4 67
Phosphorus 7.8 8.9 g/kg - 2 4.6 -15.3 70 2.2 5.2 -16.8 76
Phytate phosphorus 6.3 7.1 g/kg 80 % P 78-80 2
Magnesium 2.3 2.6 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 27 0.8 1.2 -4.8 27
Potassium 9.9 11.2 g/kg - 1.6 7.1 -15.4 33 1.8 8.1 -16.9 40
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg - 0.01 0.08 -0.11 3 0.01 0.09 -0.12 11
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg -
Sulfur 2 2.3 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 107 121 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 234 265 mEq/kg -
Manganese 97 110 mg/kg - 35 58 -169 13
Zinc 84 95 mg/kg - 16 70 -119 3 18 72 -139 13
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 11 -15 3 2 12 -17 11
Iron 117 132 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.7 0.8 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.1 0.1 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.07 0.08 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.1 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.4 6.2 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.6 5.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.2 19.5 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.1 3.5 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 54 61 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 18 21 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 3 4 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 7 8 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 107 122 mg/kg - 1
Folic acid 1 2 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1173 1330 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3400 3850 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.91 1.03 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.88 1 per kg -
PDIA Systali 34 39 g/kg -
PDI Systali 82 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 30 34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.196 0.222 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2480 2810 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1600 1810 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1550 1750 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.7 7.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.5 7.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 74.8 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 73.1 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 69 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.93 1.05 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.9 1.03 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 30 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 79 90 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 33 38 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.87 0.98 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.83 0.94 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 41 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 24 27 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.01 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.96 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 36 41 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 103 117 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 86 98 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2470 2800 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.2 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.5 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 69.3 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.9 6.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2670 3030 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2530 2870 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1760 2000 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2860 3240 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2670 3020 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1880 2130 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.6 12 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.4 8.4 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.9 8.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.4 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.5 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 77.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 75.5 % 5.2 75.1-88.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 49.2 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2 2.2 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.9 4.4 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2070 2350 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1990 2260 kcal/kg - 1430 -1990 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg - 6 -8.3 2
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 72 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 69.4 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.81 0.92 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 111 126 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2940 3330 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2810 3190 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.9 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 60.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1640 1860 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.9 7.8 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 40.2 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 78.7 % 68-92 4
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 2.3 -7.3 55 1 4.6 -8.4 28 0.5 2.2-4.9 56
Threonine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.6 -6.1 49 0.8 4.2 -8 25 0.3 2.6-4 53
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 47 0.4 1.6 -3.6 22 0.2 0.8-2 50
Cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 40 0.3 2.9 -4.3 14 0.1 1.6-2.4 41
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.3 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.2 40 0.5 5.3 -7.2 14 0.3 3.1-4.3 41
Tryptophan 2.1 2.3 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 32 0.3 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.1-1.8 33
Isoleucine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 49 0.6 4.7 -7 25 0.2 2.8-3.8 53
Valine 7.1 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -7.9 47 0.9 6.4 -10 21 0.3 3.8-5.1 49
Leucine 9.6 10.8 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 49 0.9 9.9 -14 25 0.4 5.2-7 53
Phenylalanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 44 0.6 5.9 -8.2 23 0.2 3.4-4.4 48
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.8 2.9 -5.1 33 0.9 3.4 -6 14 0.3 2.1-3.5 37
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.3 11.7 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -11.1 22 1.3 10.6 -14 6 0.3 5.9-7.3 26
Histidine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -4.9 45 0.4 3.8 -5.5 21 0.2 2-3 48
Arginine 10 11.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.6 5.4 -12.9 46 1.8 8.4 -15 23 0.6 4.9-7.2 49
Alanine 7 7.9 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 4.4 -8.6 45 1.1 6.1 -11 22 0.4 3.4-5.2 47
Aspartic acid 10.4 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12 43 1.5 9.3 -16 23 0.4 5.5-8.1 46
Glutamic acid 31.7 35.9 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.4 24.4 -42.3 44 3.8 30.5 -44.5 23 2.8 14.4-26.7 47
Glycine 7.6 8.6 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.6 46 0.9 6.6 -11 23 0.5 3.5-5.8 50
Serine 6.8 7.7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.5 45 0.7 6.2 -8.6 20 0.3 3.1-5 47
Proline 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.9 8 -13.9 32 1 10.2 -13.6 13 0.8 5.1-8.7 34
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.3 g/kg 75 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.1 g/kg 72 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 4 70-83 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 81 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 3 81-91 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 77 % 3 76-86 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 79 % 3 79-88 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 78-88 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 80 % 5 77-90 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 78 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 5 76-88 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 84 % 4 84-93 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.8 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 87 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.7 g/kg 72 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 5 71-85 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 9 g/kg 76 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.3 32.1 g/kg 89 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 88-95 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 72 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 5 69-84 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.1 g/kg 79 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 3 79-88 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.6 g/kg 89 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 74 % 59-75 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 77 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 78 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.7 g/kg 80 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.1 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.3 32 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.5 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.8 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.83 0.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.6 0.68 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 94 106 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.86 0.98 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.29 0.33 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML