Wheat middlings, starch < 20%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing less than 20% starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88.1 100 % - 1.3 85 -95.7 353 2.1
Crude protein 15.8 17.9 % - 1.1 9.8 -18.8 398 1.2 13.5 -21.2 348
Crude fibre 7.2 8.2 % - 1.4 2.9 -10 151 1.6 3.4 -11.4 140
Crude fat 3.8 4.3 % - 0.8 0.8 -5.3 337 0.9 0.9 -6.1 347
Ash 3.9 4.4 % - 0.7 2 -5.6 113 0.8 2.3 -6.1 103
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27
NDF 31.9 36.2 % - 5.4 19.9 -43.6 30 6.1 22.7 -50.3 80
ADF 9.3 10.6 % - 2 4.7 -13.1 30 2.3 5.3 -15.2 88
Lignin 2.7 3.1 % - 0.7 1.2 -3.8 18 0.8 1.4 -4.3 67
Water insoluble cell walls 31.1 35.3 % - 21.3 -33.6 3 24.3 -38.5 2
Starch 18.9 21.4 % - 0.9 17 -20 124 0.9 19.2 -22.9 116
Starch, enzymatic method 15.7 17.8 % -
Total sugars 7 7.9 % - 1.6 2.1 -9.5 10 1.9 2.4 -8.2 10
Gross energy (kcal) 4040 4580 kcal/kg - 100 3870 -4290 14 80 4410 -4840 30
Gross energy (MJ) 16.9 19.2 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 14 0.4 18.4 -20.3 30
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -2.1 63 0.4 0.2 -2.4 68
Phosphorus 8 9 g/kg - 2 4.6 -15.3 71 2.2 5.2 -16.8 77
Phytate phosphorus 6.4 7.2 g/kg 80 % P 1 7.2 -10.5 3 78-80 2
Magnesium 2.3 2.6 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 27 0.8 1.2 -4.8 27
Potassium 10 11.3 g/kg - 1.6 7.1 -15.4 33 1.8 8.1 -16.9 40
Sodium 0.08 0.09 g/kg - 0.01 0.08 -0.11 3 0.01 0.09 -0.12 11
Chlorine 1 1.1 g/kg -
Sulfur 2 2.3 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 106 120 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 233 264 mEq/kg -
Manganese 88 99 mg/kg - 35 58 -169 13
Zinc 84 95 mg/kg - 16 70 -119 3 18 72 -139 13
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 11 -15 3 2 12 -17 11
Iron 61 69 mg/kg - 58 -64 2 65 -72 2
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.4 6.2 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.6 5.3 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.2 19.5 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.8 2 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3 3.5 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 15 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.7 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4.1 4.6 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 195 221 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 28.4 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 754 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 3390 3850 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.88 1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.84 0.96 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 34 39 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 82 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 32 36 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.196 0.222 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2410 2740 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1550 1760 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1490 1690 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.7 7.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.5 7.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.5 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 69 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.9 1.02 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.87 0.99 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 30 34 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 35 40 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.84 0.95 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.8 0.9 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 41 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 25 29 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.87 0.98 per kg - 0.06 0.81 -0.89 4 0.07 0.93 -1.13 12
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.01 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.82 0.93 per kg - 0.08 0.77 -0.85 4 0.09 0.87 -1.12 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.96 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 36 41 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 103 117 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 85 97 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2410 2730 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.1 11.4 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.6 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 72.9 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 68.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 72 % 3 70-77 5
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 46 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.13 h-1 0.057 0.004-0.145 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.2 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6 6.8 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 864 981 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 898 1020 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 71 81 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 35 39 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.9 4.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 66.6 75.6 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.01 3.41 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.52 1.73 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.44 1.63 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.64 1.86 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.08 1.23 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.1 6.9 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 143 162 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 2 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2660 3010 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2520 2860 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1750 1990 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2840 3230 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2650 3010 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1870 2120 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.6 12 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.5 12 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.4 8.4 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.3 8.3 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 11.9 13.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.2 12.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.1 12.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 7.9 8.9 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 65.7 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.4 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.1 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 73.5 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.3 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 77.4 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 75.3 % 5.2 75.1-88.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 49.1 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2 2.3 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4 4.5 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2060 2330 kcal/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1980 2240 kcal/kg - 1430 -1990 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.6 9.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.4 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg - 6 -8.3 2
Available P cockerel 2 2.3 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2 2.3 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 72 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 69.3 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.81 0.92 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 112 127 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2930 3320 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2800 3180 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 13.9 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.3 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.4 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 59.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1800 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 6.9 7.8 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 2.3 -7.3 55 1 4.6 -8.4 28 0.5 2.2-4.9 56
Threonine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.6 -6.1 49 0.8 4.2 -8 25 0.3 2.6-4 53
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 47 0.4 1.6 -3.6 22 0.2 0.8-2 50
Cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 40 0.3 2.9 -4.3 14 0.1 1.6-2.4 41
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.2 40 0.5 5.3 -7.2 14 0.3 3.1-4.3 41
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 32 0.3 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.1-1.8 33
Isoleucine 5.1 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 49 0.6 4.7 -7 25 0.2 2.8-3.8 53
Valine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -7.9 47 0.9 6.4 -10 21 0.3 3.8-5.1 49
Leucine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 49 0.9 9.9 -14 25 0.4 5.2-7 53
Phenylalanine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 44 0.6 5.9 -8.2 23 0.2 3.4-4.4 48
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.8 2.9 -5.1 33 0.9 3.4 -6 14 0.3 2.1-3.5 37
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.4 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.3 8.5 -11.9 25 1.5 9.4 -14 9 0.4 5.7-7.3 29
Histidine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -4.9 45 0.4 3.8 -5.5 21 0.2 2-3 48
Arginine 10.1 11.5 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.6 5.4 -12.9 46 1.8 8.4 -15 23 0.6 4.9-7.2 49
Alanine 7 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 4.4 -8.6 45 1.1 6.1 -11 22 0.4 3.4-5.2 47
Aspartic acid 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12 43 1.5 9.3 -16 23 0.4 5.5-8.1 46
Glutamic acid 31.8 36.1 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.4 24.4 -42.3 44 3.8 30.5 -44.5 23 2.8 14.4-26.7 47
Glycine 7.7 8.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.6 46 0.9 6.6 -11 23 0.5 3.5-5.8 50
Serine 6.8 7.7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.5 45 0.7 6.2 -8.6 20 0.3 3.1-5 47
Proline 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.9 8 -13.9 32 1 10.2 -13.6 13 0.8 5.1-8.7 34
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 75 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 72 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 4 70-83 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 81 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 3 81-91 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 77 % 3 76-86 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 79 % 3 79-88 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 78-88 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 % 5 77-90 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 77 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 5 76-88 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 %
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 84 % 4 84-93 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.8 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 83 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 87 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.7 g/kg 72 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 5 71-85 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8 9 g/kg 76 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.4 32.2 g/kg 89 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 88-95 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 72 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 5 69-84 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.1 g/kg 79 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 3 79-88 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.4 10.6 g/kg 89 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 74 % 59-75 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 77 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 78 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.7 g/kg 80 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 77 % 68-77 2
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 77 % 61-77 2
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.3 32.2 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.8 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
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