Wheat middlings, starch 20-30%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing between 20% and 30% of starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88 100 % - 1.1 83.8 -96.7 1497 1.8
Crude protein 16 18.1 % - 0.9 9.8 -18.9 1732 1 13.5 -21.3 1508
Crude fibre 7.1 8 % - 1 2.9 -10 752 1.1 3.4 -11.7 618
Crude fat 4.1 4.6 % - 0.5 0.8 -5.2 378 0.6 0.9 -6 373
Ash 3.8 4.3 % - 0.4 2 -5.8 598 0.5 2.3 -6.4 505
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.01 -0.2 29 0.04 0.01 -0.2 29
NDF 31.3 35.5 % - 5.2 19.9 -43.6 55 5.9 22.7 -50.3 104
ADF 9.1 10.4 % - 1.9 4.7 -13.1 55 2.2 5.3 -15.2 112
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.6 1.2 -3.8 88 0.7 1.4 -4.3 136
Water insoluble cell walls 30.6 34.7 % - 5 21.3 -33.6 5 24.3 -38.9 3
Starch 25.2 28.6 % - 2.6 20 -30 1444 2.9 23 -34 1261
Starch, enzymatic method 21.6 24.5 % -
Total sugars 7 8 % - 2 2.1 -10.5 71 2.2 2.4 -12 70
Gross energy (kcal) 4060 4610 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 17 80 4410 -4840 33
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.3 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 17 0.3 18.4 -20.3 33
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -2.1 164 0.4 0.2 -2.4 168
Phosphorus 7.7 8.8 g/kg - 1.6 4.5 -15.3 177 1.8 5.2 -16.8 182
Phytate phosphorus 6.2 7 g/kg 80 % P 1 78-80 2
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 31 0.8 1.2 -4.8 31
Potassium 9.7 11 g/kg - 1.5 7.1 -15.4 39 1.7 8.1 -16.9 46
Sodium 0.05 0.06 g/kg - 0.03 0.01 -0.18 48 0.04 0.01 -0.2 55
Chlorine 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.7 -1.1 4 0.8 -1.2 3
Sulfur 1.7 1.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.4 -2 5 0.3 1.5 -2.3 5
Dietary cation-anion difference 122 138 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 226 257 mEq/kg -
Manganese 96 109 mg/kg - 27 92 -150 11 31 58 -169 21
Zinc 87 99 mg/kg - 17 70 -119 6 19 72 -139 16
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 10 -15 6 2 11 -17 14
Iron 126 143 mg/kg - 63 58 -189 5 71 65 -215 5
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg - 0.9 -0.9 3 1 -1 3
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.09 -0.09 3 0.1 -0.1 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.8 6.6 g/kg 17.8 % FA 4.8 -6.1 3 5.3 -6.9 3 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.2 -0.3 3 0.2 -0.3 3 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.9 5.6 g/kg 15.2 % FA 4.1 -6.2 3 4.5 -7.1 3 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.3 20.8 g/kg 56.4 % FA 18 -21.9 3 19.7 -24.1 3
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.9 2.2 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1.8 -2.2 3 2.1 -2.4 3 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.2 3.7 g/kg 80 % fat 80-86 3
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 15 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.7 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4.1 4.6 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 194 221 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 28.4 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 753 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2590 2940 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.89 1.01 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.86 0.97 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 35 39 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 82 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 34 38 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2440 2770 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1570 1780 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1510 1710 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.4 11.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.8 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.5 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.91 1.04 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.88 1 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 30 34 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 79 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 37 42 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.85 0.97 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.81 0.92 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 42 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 27 31 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.87 0.99 per kg - 0.06 0.81 -0.89 4 0.07 0.93 -1.13 12
UFL INRA 2007 0.9 1.02 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.83 0.94 per kg - 0.08 0.77 -0.85 4 0.09 0.87 -1.12 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.86 0.97 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 37 42 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 104 119 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 86 97 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2430 2760 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.2 11.6 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.9 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 73.2 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 68.8 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 % 27-74 3
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 % 8 21-46 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.052 0.004-0.145 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.6 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.8 6.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 873 992 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 909 1032 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 72 81 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 36 41 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.9 4.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 67.1 76.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.03 3.44 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.54 1.75 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.45 1.65 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.66 1.88 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.1 1.25 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.2 7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 144 164 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 2 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2690 3060 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2560 2910 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1840 2090 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2870 3260 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2710 3070 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1950 2210 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.3 12.8 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.3 12.8 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.7 8.7 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.7 8.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.2 9.3 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.2 9.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.3 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.7 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.7 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 77.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 75.7 % 5.6 72.9-88.7 10
Crude fat digestibility pig - 51.4 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.9 2.2 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.9 4.4 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2090 2370 kcal/kg - 410 1260 -2220 5 460 1460 -2840 6
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2000 2270 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg - 1.7 5.3 -9.3 5 1.9 6.1 -11.9 6
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.4 9.5 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.4 9.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.9 2.2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.9 2.2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 73.9 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 71.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.86 0.97 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 114 129 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2950 3350 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2820 3200 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg - 1
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 60.9 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1810 2050 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.6 8.6 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.6 8.6 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 3.7 4.2 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 2.3 -8.1 62 1 4.6 -9.3 35 0.5 2.2-4.9 63
Threonine 5.2 5.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.6 2.6 -6.1 54 0.7 4.2 -8 30 0.3 2.6-4 58
Methionine 2.4 2.8 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 53 0.4 1.6 -3.6 28 0.2 0.8-2 56
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.4 2.1 -4 46 0.4 2.9 -4.6 20 0.2 1.6-2.6 47
Methionine + cystine 5.7 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.5 45 0.5 5.3 -7.2 19 0.3 3.1-4.4 46
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 34 0.3 1.9 -2.9 11 0.2 1.1-1.8 35
Isoleucine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 54 0.5 4.7 -7 30 0.2 2.8-3.8 58
Valine 7.2 8.2 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -8.5 52 0.9 6.4 -10 26 0.3 3.8-5.1 54
Leucine 9.7 11 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 54 0.8 9.9 -14 30 0.4 5.2-7 58
Phenylalanine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 49 0.6 5.9 -8.2 28 0.2 3.4-4.4 53
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.7 2.9 -5.1 36 0.8 3.4 -6 17 0.3 2.1-3.5 40
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.4 11.9 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -11.9 28 1.3 9.4 -14 12 0.4 5.7-7.3 32
Histidine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -5 50 0.5 3.8 -5.5 26 0.2 2-3.1 53
Arginine 10.3 11.7 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.5 5.4 -12.9 51 1.7 8.4 -15 28 0.5 4.9-7.2 54
Alanine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 4.4 -9 50 1.2 6.1 -11 27 0.4 3.4-5.2 52
Aspartic acid 10.6 12.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12.7 48 1.5 9.3 -16 28 0.4 5.5-8.1 51
Glutamic acid 32.2 36.5 g/kg 20.1 g/16g N 3.1 24.4 -42.3 48 3.5 30.5 -44.5 27 2.7 14.4-26.7 51
Glycine 7.7 8.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.9 51 0.9 6.6 -11 28 0.4 3.5-5.8 55
Serine 6.9 7.8 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.5 50 0.7 6.2 -8.6 25 0.3 3.1-5 52
Proline 10.6 12.1 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.8 8 -13.9 35 0.9 10.2 -13.6 16 0.7 5.1-8.7 37
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 75 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 7 68-89 10
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 72 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 5 69-83 10
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 82 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 79-91 10
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 3 76-86 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 79 % 3 78-88 10
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 4 78-88 6
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 80 % 6 74-90 10
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 78 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 7 68-88 10
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.9 g/kg 81 % 6 74-91 10
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 84 % 6 76-93 10
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 7 70-94 10
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 6 74-93 10
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10.2 g/kg 88 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 10
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 72 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 6 66-85 10
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.2 g/kg 76 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 6 68-87 10
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.8 32.7 g/kg 89 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 4 85-95 10
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 73 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 7 62-84 10
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 80 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 4 76-88 10
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.5 g/kg 87 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.4 g/kg 75 % 59-75 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 79 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 79 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.9 g/kg 81 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.4 g/kg 79 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.4 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.2 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.7 32.6 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.2 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 10 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.82 0.93 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.77 0.87 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 92 105 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 9.99 11.35 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML