Wheat middlings, starch 20-30%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing between 20% and 30% of starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88 100 % - 2 83.8 -96.7 1324 1.8
Crude protein 16 18.2 % - 0.9 9.8 -18.9 1560 1 13.5 -21.3 1336
Crude fibre 7 8 % - 1 2.9 -10 702 1.1 3.4 -11.7 568
Crude fat 4 4.6 % - 0.5 0.8 -5.2 340 0.6 0.9 -6 335
Ash 3.8 4.3 % - 0.4 2 -5.8 551 0.5 2.3 -6.4 458
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.01 -0.2 29 0.04 0.01 -0.2 29
NDF 31.2 35.5 % - 5.2 19.9 -43.6 54 5.9 22.7 -50.3 103
ADF 9.1 10.3 % - 1.9 4.7 -13.1 54 2.2 5.3 -15.2 111
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.6 1.2 -3.8 88 0.7 1.4 -4.3 136
Water insoluble cell walls 30.5 34.7 % - 5 21.3 -33.6 5 24.3 -38.9 3
Starch 25.2 28.6 % - 2.6 20 -30 1341 2.9 23 -34 1158
Total sugars 7.1 8 % - 2 2.1 -10.5 71 2.2 2.4 -12 70
Gross energy (kcal) 4060 4610 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 17 80 4410 -4840 33
Gross energy (MJ) 17 19.3 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 17 0.3 18.4 -20.3 33
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.2 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -2.1 163 0.4 0.2 -2.4 167
Phosphorus 7.7 8.8 g/kg - 1.6 4.5 -15.3 176 1.8 5.2 -16.8 181
Phytate phosphorus 6.2 7 g/kg 80 % P 78-80 2
Magnesium 3.5 4 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 31 0.8 1.2 -4.8 31
Potassium 9.7 11 g/kg - 1.5 7.1 -15.4 39 1.7 8.1 -16.9 46
Sodium 0.05 0.06 g/kg - 0.03 0.01 -0.18 48 0.04 0.01 -0.2 55
Chlorine 0.9 1 g/kg - 0.7 -1.1 4 0.8 -1.2 3
Sulfur 1.6 1.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.4 -2 5 0.3 1.5 -2.3 5
Dietary cation-anion difference 123 139 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 226 256 mEq/kg -
Manganese 100 114 mg/kg - 27 92 -150 11 31 58 -169 21
Zinc 87 99 mg/kg - 17 70 -119 6 19 72 -139 16
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 10 -15 6 2 11 -17 14
Iron 94 107 mg/kg - 63 58 -189 5 71 65 -215 5
Selenium 0.6 0.7 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 2 3 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0.09 -0.09 3 0.1 -0.1 3
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.8 6.5 g/kg 17.8 % FA 4.8 -6.1 3 5.3 -6.9 3 15.3-17.8 3
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.2 -0.3 3 0.2 -0.3 3
C18:1 oleic acid 4.9 5.6 g/kg 15.2 % FA 4.1 -6.2 3 4.5 -7.1 3 14.2-18.3 3
C18:2 linoleic acid 18.3 20.7 g/kg 56.4 % FA 18 -21.9 3 19.7 -24.1 3
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.9 2.2 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1.8 -2.2 3 2.1 -2.4 3 5.4-6.6 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.2 3.7 g/kg 80 % fat 80-86 3
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 25 28 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 16 18 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 102 116 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 18 21 mg/kg -
Folic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1174 1333 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2590 2940 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.92 1.04 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.89 1.01 per kg -
PDIA Systali 35 39 g/kg -
PDI Systali 83 94 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 33 37 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2500 2830 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1610 1830 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1560 1770 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.4 11.9 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.8 7.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 75.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 73.4 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 89 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.5 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 7.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.94 1.06 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.91 1.04 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 30 34 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 79 90 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 36 41 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.88 0.99 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.84 0.95 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 42 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 89 101 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 26 30 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.9 1.02 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.86 0.97 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 37 42 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 105 119 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 87 99 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2480 2820 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.4 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.8 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 69.6 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.8 6.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2690 3060 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2570 2910 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1840 2090 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2880 3270 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2710 3080 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1950 2210 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.3 12.8 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.7 8.8 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.2 9.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.4 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 70.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.7 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 %
N digestibility growing pig - 70.7 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 77.6 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 75.7 % 5.6 72.9-88.7 10
Crude fat digestibility pig - 51.3 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.9 2.2 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.9 4.4 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2090 2370 kcal/kg - 410 1260 -2220 5 460 1460 -2840 6
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2000 2280 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg - 1.7 5.3 -9.3 5 1.9 6.1 -11.9 6
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.4 9.5 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 74 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 71.2 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.86 0.97 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 114 129 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2950 3350 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2820 3200 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.7 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 61 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1810 2050 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.6 8.6 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 3.7 4.2 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.9 2.3 -8.1 62 1 4.6 -9.3 35 0.5 2.2-4.9 63
Threonine 5.2 5.9 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.6 2.6 -6.1 54 0.7 4.2 -8 30 0.3 2.6-4 58
Methionine 2.5 2.8 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 53 0.4 1.6 -3.6 28 0.2 0.8-2 56
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.4 2.1 -4 46 0.4 2.9 -4.6 20 0.2 1.6-2.6 47
Methionine + cystine 5.7 6.5 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.5 45 0.5 5.3 -7.2 19 0.3 3.1-4.4 46
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 34 0.3 1.9 -2.9 11 0.2 1.1-1.8 35
Isoleucine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 54 0.5 4.7 -7 30 0.2 2.8-3.8 58
Valine 7.2 8.2 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -8.5 52 0.9 6.4 -10 26 0.3 3.8-5.1 54
Leucine 9.7 11 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 54 0.8 9.9 -14 30 0.4 5.2-7 58
Phenylalanine 6.3 7.2 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 49 0.6 5.9 -8.2 28 0.2 3.4-4.4 53
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.7 2.9 -5.1 36 0.8 3.4 -6 17 0.3 2.1-3.5 40
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 0.9 8.5 -11.1 25 1 10.6 -14 9 0.4 5.9-7.3 29
Histidine 4.2 4.8 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -5 50 0.5 3.8 -5.5 26 0.2 2-3.1 53
Arginine 10.3 11.7 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.5 5.4 -12.9 51 1.7 8.4 -15 28 0.5 4.9-7.2 54
Alanine 7.2 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 1 4.4 -9 50 1.2 6.1 -11 27 0.4 3.4-5.2 52
Aspartic acid 10.7 12.1 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12.7 48 1.5 9.3 -16 28 0.4 5.5-8.1 51
Glutamic acid 32.2 36.6 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.1 24.4 -42.3 48 3.5 30.5 -44.5 27 2.7 14.4-26.7 51
Glycine 7.7 8.8 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.9 51 0.9 6.6 -11 28 0.4 3.5-5.8 55
Serine 9.7 11 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Proline 10.6 12.1 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.8 8 -13.9 35 0.9 10.2 -13.6 16 0.7 5.1-8.7 37
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 75 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 7 68-89 10
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.3 g/kg 72 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 5 69-83 10
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 82 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 79-91 10
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 3 76-86 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 79 % 3 78-88 10
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 4 78-88 6
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 80 % 6 74-90 10
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 78 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 7 68-88 10
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 8.9 g/kg 81 % 6 74-91 10
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 84 % 6 76-93 10
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 7 70-94 10
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 6 74-93 10
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 9 10.3 g/kg 88 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 10
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 72 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 6 66-85 10
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.3 g/kg 76 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 6 68-87 10
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.8 32.7 g/kg 89 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 4 85-95 10
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 73 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 7 62-84 10
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 80 % 4 76-88 10
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.3 10.5 g/kg 87 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 75 % 59-75 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.2 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.2 4.8 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.4 g/kg 79 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.8 8.9 g/kg 81 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.2 5.9 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.4 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.3 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.4 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.2 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.7 32.6 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.9 6.7 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.7 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 10 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.83 0.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.6 0.68 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 94 106 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.86 0.98 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.29 0.33 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML