Wheat middlings, starch 30-40%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing between 30% and 40% of starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.9 100 % - 1.1 84.3 -92.9 793 1.8
Crude protein 15.4 17.6 % - 1 9.8 -18.8 931 1.2 10.8 -21.3 792
Crude fibre 6 6.8 % - 1.1 2.9 -9.3 406 1.3 3.4 -10.6 322
Crude fat 3.7 4.2 % - 0.6 0.8 -5 192 0.7 0.9 -5.6 188
Ash 3.3 3.8 % - 0.5 2 -4.9 299 0.5 2.3 -5.6 238
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27 0.04 0.02 -0.2 27
NDF 26.9 30.7 % - 5.8 18.4 -43.6 45 6.6 20.8 -50.3 97
ADF 7.8 8.8 % - 2 4.7 -13.1 45 2.3 5.3 -15.2 105
Lignin 2.3 2.6 % - 0.8 1.1 -3.8 45 0.9 1.3 -4.3 97
Water insoluble cell walls 26.2 29.9 % - 21.3 -33.6 4 24.3 -38.5 4
Starch 33.8 38.5 % - 2.7 30 -40 653 3.1 34 -45.2 556
Starch, enzymatic method 29.6 33.7 % - 9.7 25.1 -57.5 14
Total sugars 6.8 7.7 % - 1.8 2.1 -9.5 30 2.1 2.4 -10.1 33
Gross energy (kcal) 4030 4590 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 14 80 4410 -4840 33
Gross energy (MJ) 16.9 19.2 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 14 0.4 18.4 -20.3 33
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -2.1 98 0.4 0.2 -2.4 103
Phosphorus 7 7.9 g/kg - 2 4.6 -15.3 111 2.2 5.2 -16.8 117
Phytate phosphorus 5.6 6.3 g/kg 80 % P 1 78-80 2
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 27 0.8 1.2 -4.8 27
Potassium 8.9 10.1 g/kg - 1.6 7.1 -15.4 33 1.8 8.1 -16.9 40
Sodium 0.06 0.06 g/kg - 0.03 0.01 -0.11 14 0.04 0.01 -0.12 22
Chlorine 0.9 1.1 g/kg -
Sulfur 2 2.3 g/kg - 2.3 -2.3 2
Dietary cation-anion difference 79 90 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 203 231 mEq/kg -
Manganese 87 99 mg/kg - 28 75 -150 6 31 58 -169 16
Zinc 84 95 mg/kg - 16 70 -119 3 18 72 -139 13
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 11 -15 3 2 12 -17 11
Iron 60 69 mg/kg - 58 -64 2 65 -72 2
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 1 1
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.2 5.9 g/kg 17.8 % FA 1 1 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 1 1 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.5 5.1 g/kg 15.2 % FA 1 1 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 16.5 18.8 g/kg 56.4 % FA 1 1 1
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.7 2 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 1 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.9 3.3 % 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 15 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.7 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 194 221 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 28.3 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 752 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2580 2940 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.92 1.05 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.89 1.01 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 33 38 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 81 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2500 2840 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1620 1840 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1570 1790 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.8 12.3 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 8 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.9 7.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.9 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.92 1.04 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 31 36 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.88 1 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.84 0.96 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 40 46 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 87 99 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 22 25 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.94 1.07 per kg - 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFL INRA 2007 0.9 1.03 per kg - 0.07 0.93 -1.13 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.91 1.03 per kg - 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.87 0.98 per kg - 0.09 0.87 -1.12 12
PDIA INRA 2007 36 41 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 101 115 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 87 99 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2490 2830 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.4 11.9 MJ/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 77 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 75.3 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 69.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.057 0.004-0.145 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5.2 5.9 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 901 1025 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 947 1078 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 74 84 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 29 33 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.1 4.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 68.9 78.4 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.1 3.53 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.58 1.8 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.7 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.94 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.14 1.3 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.4 7.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 145 165 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 1 2 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2860 3260 kcal/kg - 310 2300 -3100 3 350 2510 -3560 6
ME growing pig (kcal) 2740 3120 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2020 2300 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3020 3440 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2870 3260 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2110 2400 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.5 13.1 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.4 9.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.6 14.4 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.8 10 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 71.1 % 7.2 56.4-78 6
Energy digestibility adult pig - 74.9 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 74.2 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 77.9 % 1
N digestibility growing pig - 73.6 % 69-79.4 4
N digestibility adult pig - 79.7 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 79.2 % 4.7 75.1-88.8 11
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.5 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 2 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.5 4 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2260 2570 kcal/kg - 1 2540 -2840 3
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2170 2470 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.5 10.8 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.1 10.3 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.7 2 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.7 2 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 77.5 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 74.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.92 1.05 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 111 127 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3000 3420 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2870 3270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.6 14.3 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 74.5 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 65.1 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1800 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 3.3 3.8 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.1 7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.8 2.3 -7.3 60 0.9 4.6 -8.4 33 0.5 2.2-4.9 61
Threonine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.6 2.6 -6.1 53 0.7 4.2 -8 29 0.3 2.6-4 57
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 51 0.4 1.6 -3.6 26 0.2 0.8-2 54
Cystine 3.1 3.5 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 44 0.3 2.9 -4.3 18 0.1 1.6-2.4 45
Methionine + cystine 5.5 6.2 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.4 44 0.5 5.3 -7.2 18 0.3 3.1-4.3 45
Tryptophan 2 2.3 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.2 1.1 -2.8 35 0.3 1.9 -2.9 12 0.2 1.1-1.8 36
Isoleucine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 53 0.6 4.7 -7 29 0.2 2.8-3.8 57
Valine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.7 4 -7.9 51 0.8 6.4 -10 25 0.3 3.8-5.1 53
Leucine 9.4 10.7 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 53 0.9 9.9 -14 29 0.4 5.2-7 57
Phenylalanine 6.1 7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 48 0.6 5.9 -8.2 27 0.2 3.4-4.4 52
Tyrosine 4.1 4.6 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.7 2.9 -5.1 34 0.8 3.4 -6 15 0.3 2.1-3.5 38
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.2 11.6 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.3 8.5 -11.9 26 1.4 9.4 -14 10 0.4 5.7-7.3 30
Histidine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.4 2 -4.9 49 0.4 3.8 -5.5 25 0.2 2-3 52
Arginine 9.8 11.1 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.5 5.4 -12.9 50 1.7 8.4 -15 27 0.5 4.9-7.2 53
Alanine 6.8 7.8 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.9 4.4 -8.6 49 1.1 6.1 -11 26 0.4 3.4-5.2 51
Aspartic acid 10.1 11.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12 47 1.4 9.3 -16 27 0.4 5.5-8.1 50
Glutamic acid 31.1 35.4 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.4 24.4 -42.3 48 3.8 30.5 -44.5 27 2.7 14.4-26.7 51
Glycine 7.5 8.5 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.6 50 0.9 6.6 -11 27 0.4 3.5-5.8 54
Serine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.6 49 0.7 6.2 -8.6 24 0.3 3.1-5 51
Proline 10.3 11.7 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.9 8 -13.9 33 1 10.2 -13.6 14 0.7 5.1-8.7 35
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 79 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 4 77-89 11
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.8 4.3 g/kg 76 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 4 70-87 11
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.3 g/kg 84 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 3 81-91 11
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.9 g/kg 80 % 3 76-88 11
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 82 % 3 79-89 11
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 82 % 3 78-88 7
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.6 g/kg 83 % 4 77-90 11
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 81 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 4 76-90 11
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.9 9 g/kg 84 % 4 82-91 11
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 86 % 4 84-93 11
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 86 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 4 85-95 11
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 86 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 4 84-94 11
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 86 % 3 85-93 10
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 89 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-95 11
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.9 g/kg 75 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 6 71-88 11
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 79 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 4 76-89 11
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.3 32.2 g/kg 91 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 2 88-95 11
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.7 6.5 g/kg 76 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 5 69-88 11
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 82 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 3 79-90 11
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.9 10.2 g/kg 87 % 8.3 -9.1 2 9.5 -10.3 2 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.8 5.5 g/kg 79 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 76 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 84 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 79 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.4 5.1 g/kg 81 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 81 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 80 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.8 g/kg 82 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 78 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.3 9.4 g/kg 81 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 81 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 78 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 78 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.1 32 g/kg 91 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 78 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 81 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.8 10 g/kg 86 % 79-88 2
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