Wheat middlings, starch > 40%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing more than 40% starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.8 100 % - 1.2 84 -92.9 370 1.9
Crude protein 15 17.1 % - 1.3 9.8 -18.8 429 1.5 13.1 -21.2 362
Crude fibre 5.7 6.5 % - 1.6 2.6 -9.2 163 1.9 3 -10.4 137
Crude fat 3.4 3.9 % - 0.9 0.8 -5.3 449 1 0.9 -6.1 455
Ash 3.1 3.6 % - 0.8 1.6 -4.9 123 0.9 1.9 -5.6 99
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.02 -0.2 28 0.04 0.02 -0.2 28
NDF 25.9 29.4 % - 5.9 17.4 -43.6 34 6.7 20.6 -50.3 83
ADF 7.4 8.4 % - 2.1 4.4 -13.1 34 2.4 5.2 -15.2 91
Lignin 2.2 2.5 % - 0.8 0.8 -3.8 25 1 0.9 -4.3 74
Water insoluble cell walls 25.2 28.7 % - 19.9 -33.6 4 22.5 -38.5 3
Starch 44.9 51.1 % - 4.5 40 -59.6 158 5 45.5 -67.6 133
Starch, enzymatic method 39.8 45.4 % - 9.7 25.1 -57.5 14
Total sugars 6.5 7.4 % - 2.1 2.1 -9.5 8 2.3 2.4 -8.9 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4010 4570 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 14 80 4410 -4840 30
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.1 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 14 0.4 18.4 -20.3 30
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -2.1 66 0.4 0.2 -2.4 71
Phosphorus 6.6 7.5 g/kg - 2.3 3.9 -15.3 74 2.6 4.4 -16.8 80
Phytate phosphorus 5.3 6 g/kg 80 % P 1 78-80 2
Magnesium 2.9 3.3 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 27 0.8 1.2 -4.8 27
Potassium 8.5 9.7 g/kg - 1.6 7.1 -15.4 33 1.8 8.1 -16.9 40
Sodium 0.09 0.1 g/kg - 0.02 0.07 -0.15 5 0.02 0.08 -0.17 13
Chlorine 0.9 1.1 g/kg -
Sulfur 1.6 1.9 g/kg -
Dietary cation-anion difference 93 105 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 195 223 mEq/kg -
Manganese 87 99 mg/kg - 35 58 -169 13
Zinc 84 95 mg/kg - 16 70 -119 3 18 72 -139 13
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 11 -15 3 2 12 -17 11
Iron 60 69 mg/kg - 58 -64 2 65 -72 2
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.8 5.5 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.1 4.7 g/kg 15.2 % FA 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 15.3 17.4 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.7 3.1 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 15 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.7 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 194 221 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 28.3 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 752 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2580 2940 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.92 1.05 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.9 1.02 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 33 37 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 80 91 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 25 29 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2510 2850 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1630 1850 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1580 1800 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.9 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7.1 8.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 76.2 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 74.3 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 61 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.94 1.07 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.92 1.05 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 77 88 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 28 32 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.88 1.01 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.85 0.97 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 39 45 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 86 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 20 23 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.95 1.08 per kg - 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFL INRA 2007 0.91 1.03 per kg - 0.07 0.93 -1.13 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.05 per kg - 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.87 0.99 per kg - 0.09 0.87 -1.12 12
PDIA INRA 2007 35 39 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 98 112 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 86 98 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2500 2850 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.8 12.3 MJ/kg - 1.4 10 -14.7 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.5 11.9 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 77.5 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 75.7 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 68.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 %
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 %
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.057 0.004-0.145 5
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 5 5.7 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 906 1031 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 955 1087 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 74 84 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 25 29 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 4.2 4.7 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.5 1.7 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 69.3 78.9 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.11 3.54 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.59 1.81 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.5 1.71 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.71 1.95 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.15 1.3 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.4 7.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 145 165 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 0.8 1 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2900 3300 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2790 3180 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2140 2430 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3050 3470 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2930 3330 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2210 2520 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.1 13.8 MJ/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg - 1 1
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 8.9 10.2 MJ/kg -
NE growing pig (MJ) 9 10.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.8 14.5 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 72.2 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 76 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.3 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 78.8 %
N digestibility growing pig - 74.3 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 80.3 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 80 % 5.2 75.1-88.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 48.7 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.7 1.9 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.3 3.8 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2300 2620 kcal/kg - 1 2540 -2840 2
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2210 2510 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.7 11.1 MJ/kg - 1 10.6 -11.9 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.6 11 MJ/kg - 1
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.2 10.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 1.7 1.9 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 1.7 1.9 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 80.6 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.6 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.99 1.13 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 108 123 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3010 3430 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2890 3280 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.4 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.6 14.4 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 12.1 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 75.1 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 66 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1790 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 3.2 3.6 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.9 6.7 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.8 2.3 -7.3 58 0.9 4.6 -8.4 31 0.5 2.2-4.9 59
Threonine 4.8 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.6 -6.1 49 0.8 4.2 -8 25 0.3 2.6-4 53
Methionine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 47 0.4 1.6 -3.6 22 0.2 0.8-2 50
Cystine 3 3.4 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 40 0.3 2.9 -4.3 14 0.1 1.6-2.4 41
Methionine + cystine 5.3 6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.2 40 0.5 5.3 -7.2 14 0.3 3.1-4.3 41
Tryptophan 1.9 2.2 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 32 0.3 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.1-1.8 33
Isoleucine 4.8 5.5 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 49 0.6 4.7 -7 25 0.2 2.8-3.8 53
Valine 6.8 7.7 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -7.9 47 0.9 6.4 -10 21 0.3 3.8-5.1 49
Leucine 9.2 10.5 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 49 0.9 9.9 -14 25 0.4 5.2-7 53
Phenylalanine 6 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 44 0.6 5.9 -8.2 23 0.2 3.4-4.4 48
Tyrosine 4 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.8 2.9 -5.1 33 0.9 3.4 -6 14 0.3 2.1-3.5 37
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10 11.4 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.3 8.5 -11.9 25 1.5 9.4 -14 9 0.4 5.7-7.3 29
Histidine 4 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.4 2 -4.9 45 0.4 3.8 -5.5 21 0.2 2-3 48
Arginine 9.3 10.6 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.6 5.4 -12.9 46 1.8 8.4 -15 23 0.6 4.9-7.2 49
Alanine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 4.4 -8.6 45 1.1 6.1 -11 22 0.4 3.4-5.2 47
Aspartic acid 9.7 11 g/kg 6.5 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12 43 1.5 9.3 -16 23 0.4 5.5-8.1 46
Glutamic acid 30.2 34.4 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.3 24.4 -42.3 44 3.8 30.5 -44.5 23 2.8 14.4-26.7 47
Glycine 7.2 8.3 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.6 46 0.9 6.6 -11 23 0.5 3.5-5.8 50
Serine 6.4 7.3 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.5 45 0.7 6.2 -8.6 20 0.3 3.1-5 47
Proline 10 11.4 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.9 8 -13.9 32 1 10.2 -13.6 13 0.8 5.1-8.7 34
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.3 g/kg 80 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 5 77-89 8
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 77 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 4 70-83 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 85 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 3 81-91 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 81 % 3 76-86 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 83 % 3 79-88 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 83 % 78-88 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.5 g/kg 83 % 5 77-90 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.2 g/kg 81 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 5 76-88 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.8 g/kg 84 % 4 82-91 8
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 87 % 4 84-93 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 87 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 3 85-94 8
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 87 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 4 84-93 8
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 87 % 3 85-93 7
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.4 9.5 g/kg 90 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 76 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 5 71-85 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 80 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 4 76-87 8
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 27.6 31.5 g/kg 91 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 88-95 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.4 g/kg 77 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 5 69-84 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.1 g/kg 83 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 3 79-88 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 87 % 8.3 -9.1 2 9.5 -10.3 2 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.3 g/kg 79 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.7 4.2 g/kg 77 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 84 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 79 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 82 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 81 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.6 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.5 6.2 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 83 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 78 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.6 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 81 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.9 g/kg 78 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 78 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 27.5 31.3 g/kg 91 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.7 6.5 g/kg 78 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.6 9.8 g/kg 86 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.82 0.93 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.77 0.88 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 92 105 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 9.99 11.38 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML