Wheat middlings, starch > 40%

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for wheat middlings containing more than 40% starch (as fed).

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 87.9 100 % - 2.1 84 -92.9 296 1.9
Crude protein 14.8 16.9 % - 1.3 9.8 -18.8 356 1.5 13.1 -21.2 289
Crude fibre 5.6 6.4 % - 1.6 2.6 -9.2 159 1.9 3 -10.4 133
Crude fat 3.4 3.9 % - 0.9 0.8 -5.3 444 1 0.9 -6.1 450
Ash 3.1 3.5 % - 0.8 1.6 -4.9 119 0.9 1.9 -5.6 95
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.02 -0.2 28 0.04 0.02 -0.2 28
NDF 25.6 29.1 % - 5.9 17.4 -43.6 33 6.7 20.6 -50.3 82
ADF 7.3 8.3 % - 2.1 4.4 -13.1 33 2.4 5.2 -15.2 90
Lignin 2.1 2.4 % - 0.8 0.8 -3.8 25 1 0.9 -4.3 74
Water insoluble cell walls 24.9 28.3 % - 19.9 -33.6 4 22.5 -38.5 3
Starch 44.8 50.9 % - 4.5 40 -59.6 154 5.1 45.5 -67.6 129
Total sugars 6.4 7.3 % - 2.1 2.1 -9.5 8 2.3 2.4 -8.9 8
Gross energy (kcal) 4020 4570 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 14 80 4410 -4840 30
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.1 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 14 0.4 18.4 -20.3 30
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -2.1 65 0.4 0.2 -2.4 70
Phosphorus 6.5 7.4 g/kg - 2.3 3.9 -15.3 73 2.6 4.4 -16.8 79
Phytate phosphorus 5.2 5.9 g/kg 80 % P 78-80 2
Magnesium 3.5 4 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 27 0.8 1.2 -4.8 27
Potassium 8.4 9.5 g/kg - 1.6 7.1 -15.4 33 1.8 8.1 -16.9 40
Sodium 0.09 0.1 g/kg - 0.02 0.07 -0.15 5 0.02 0.08 -0.17 13
Sulfur 1.6 1.9 g/kg -
Manganese 100 114 mg/kg - 35 58 -169 13
Zinc 84 95 mg/kg - 16 70 -119 3 18 72 -139 13
Copper 13 15 mg/kg - 2 11 -15 3 2 12 -17 11
Iron 94 107 mg/kg -
Selenium 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 2 3 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.1 % FA
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.8 5.5 g/kg 17.8 % FA
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA
C18:1 oleic acid 4.1 4.7 g/kg 15.2 % FA
C18:2 linoleic acid 15.3 17.4 g/kg 56.4 % FA
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.6 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 2.7 3.1 g/kg 80 % fat
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 25 28 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 16 18 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 102 116 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 18 21 mg/kg -
Folic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1172 1333 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2590 2940 IU/kg - 1
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL Systali 0.97 1.1 per kg -
UFV Systali 0.95 1.08 per kg -
PDIA Systali 32 37 g/kg -
PDI Systali 81 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance Systali 22 25 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants Systali 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants Systali (kcal) 2600 2960 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (kcal) 1700 1940 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (kcal) 1670 1900 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants Systali (MJ) 10.9 12.4 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants Systali (MJ) 7.1 8.1 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants Systali (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants Systali - 78.7 %
Energy digestibility ruminants Systali - 76.9 %
N degradability ruminants Systali - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants Systali - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants Systali - 62 %
Lysine ruminants Systali - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants Systali - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants Systali - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants Systali - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants Systali - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants Systali - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants Systali - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants Systali - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants Systali - 5.1 % PDI
UFL FL1 Systali 0.99 1.12 per kg -
UFV FL1 Systali 0.98 1.11 per kg -
PDIA FL1 Systali 28 32 g/kg -
PDI FL1 Systali 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 Systali 25 28 g/kg -
UFL FL4 Systali 0.93 1.05 per kg -
UFV FL4 Systali 0.9 1.03 per kg -
PDIA FL4 Systali 39 44 g/kg -
PDI FL4 Systali 86 98 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 Systali 17 19 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.95 1.08 per kg - 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.92 1.05 per kg - 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 34 39 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 97 110 g/kg -
PDIE INRA 2007 88 100 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2590 2940 kcal/kg - 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.8 12.3 MJ/kg - 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 80.1 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 78.2 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 70.1 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 5
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 1
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 1
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 70 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.5 %
Absorbable P ruminants 4.9 5.6 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.5 0.6 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2920 3320 kcal/kg - 2300 -3100 3 2510 -3560 4
ME growing pig (kcal) 2810 3200 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 2140 2440 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 3060 3480 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2940 3340 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 2220 2530 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg - 9.6 -13 3 10.5 -14.9 4
ME growing pig (MJ) 11.8 13.4 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 9 10.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12.8 14.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 12.3 14 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 72.6 % 56.4-78 4
Energy digestibility adult pig - 76.3 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 75.6 % 1
OM digestibility adult pig - 79 %
N digestibility growing pig - 74.5 % 69-79.4 3
N digestibility adult pig - 80.5 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 80.3 % 5.2 75.1-88.7 8
Crude fat digestibility pig - 48.8 % 1
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 1.6 1.9 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 3.3 3.7 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2320 2640 kcal/kg - 1 2540 -2840 2
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2220 2530 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 9.7 11.1 MJ/kg - 1 10.6 -11.9 2
AMEn broiler (MJ) 9.3 10.6 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 81 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 77.5 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.99 1.13 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 107 122 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 3020 3440 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2880 3270 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.7 14.4 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
ME rabbit (MJ) 12 13.7 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 75.2 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 77.4 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1790 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 3.1 3.6 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 5.8 6.6 g/kg 3.9 g/16g N 0.8 2.3 -7.3 58 0.9 4.6 -8.4 31 0.5 2.2-4.9 59
Threonine 4.7 5.3 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 2.6 -6.1 49 0.8 4.2 -8 25 0.3 2.6-4 53
Methionine 2.3 2.6 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 47 0.4 1.6 -3.6 22 0.2 0.8-2 50
Cystine 3 3.4 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -3.7 40 0.3 2.9 -4.3 14 0.1 1.6-2.4 41
Methionine + cystine 5.3 6 g/kg 3.5 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.2 40 0.5 5.3 -7.2 14 0.3 3.1-4.3 41
Tryptophan 1.9 2.2 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 32 0.3 1.9 -2.9 9 0.2 1.1-1.8 33
Isoleucine 4.7 5.4 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 49 0.6 4.7 -7 25 0.2 2.8-3.8 53
Valine 6.7 7.6 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 4 -7.9 47 0.9 6.4 -10 21 0.3 3.8-5.1 49
Leucine 9.1 10.4 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.8 6.5 -11.2 49 0.9 9.9 -14 25 0.4 5.2-7 53
Phenylalanine 5.9 6.8 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 44 0.6 5.9 -8.2 23 0.2 3.4-4.4 48
Tyrosine 4 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.8 2.9 -5.1 33 0.9 3.4 -6 14 0.3 2.1-3.5 37
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 9.9 11.3 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 1.1 8.5 -11.1 22 1.3 10.6 -14 6 0.3 5.9-7.3 26
Histidine 3.9 4.5 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.4 2 -4.9 45 0.4 3.8 -5.5 21 0.2 2-3 48
Arginine 9.1 10.4 g/kg 6.2 g/16g N 1.6 5.4 -12.9 46 1.8 8.4 -15 23 0.6 4.9-7.2 49
Alanine 6.5 7.4 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 1 4.4 -8.6 45 1.1 6.1 -11 22 0.4 3.4-5.2 47
Aspartic acid 9.5 10.8 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.3 6.5 -12 43 1.5 9.3 -16 23 0.4 5.5-8.1 46
Glutamic acid 29.9 34 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.3 24.4 -42.3 44 3.8 30.5 -44.5 23 2.8 14.4-26.7 47
Glycine 7.2 8.1 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.6 46 0.9 6.6 -11 23 0.5 3.5-5.8 50
Serine 9.1 10.4 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Proline 9.9 11.2 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.9 8 -13.9 32 1 10.2 -13.6 13 0.8 5.1-8.7 34
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.6 5.3 g/kg 80 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 5 77-89 8
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.1 g/kg 77 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 4 70-83 8
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.9 2.2 g/kg 85 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 3 81-91 8
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.4 2.8 g/kg 81 % 3 76-86 8
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 83 % 3 79-88 8
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.6 1.8 g/kg 83 % 78-88 4
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.9 4.5 g/kg 83 % 5 77-90 8
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.2 g/kg 81 % 5 76-88 8
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.7 8.8 g/kg 85 % 4 82-91 8
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 5.9 g/kg 87 % 4 84-93 8
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 3.9 g/kg 87 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 3 85-94 8
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.8 g/kg 87 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 4 84-93 8
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 87 % 3 85-93 7
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.3 g/kg 90 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-94 8
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.9 5.6 g/kg 76 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 5 71-85 8
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.7 g/kg 80 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 4 76-87 8
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 27.3 31.1 g/kg 92 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 88-95 8
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.3 g/kg 78 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 5 69-84 8
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.6 g/kg 83 % 3 79-88 8
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.6 9.8 g/kg 87 % 8.3 -9.1 2 9.5 -10.3 2 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.2 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.6 4.1 g/kg 77 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 85 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.7 g/kg 79 %
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 82 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.8 g/kg 82 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4 4.5 g/kg 84 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 81 %
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 83 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.7 g/kg 84 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.6 g/kg 79 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 82 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 79 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.4 g/kg 81 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 78 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.5 g/kg 78 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 27.2 30.9 g/kg 91 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.4 g/kg 78 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.4 8.5 g/kg 82 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.5 9.7 g/kg 86 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.83 0.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.6 0.69 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 94 107 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.86 0.98 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.29 0.33 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML