Wheat bran

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain from which the greater part of the endosperm has been removed.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 86.9 100 % - 1.1 82.1 -97.1 4839 1.8
Crude protein 15.3 17.6 % - 0.9 11 -19.6 5417 1 12.1 -21.4 4733
Crude fibre 9.2 10.5 % - 1.1 6 -13 5058 1.3 6.8 -15.1 4407
Crude fat 3.3 3.8 % - 0.4 2 -5 791 0.5 2.3 -5.7 757
Ash 4.8 5.6 % - 0.5 3 -7 2014 0.5 3.4 -7.9 1638
Insoluble ash 0.1 0.2 % - 0.2 0 -0.2 34 0.3 0.01 -1.6 34
NDF 39.6 45.6 % - 4.4 24.4 -52.5 664 5 22.8 -59.6 760
ADF 11.8 13.5 % - 1.4 7 -16.4 651 1.6 8.1 -18.7 761
Lignin 3.4 3.9 % - 0.6 1.8 -4.7 351 0.6 1.9 -5.2 449
Water insoluble cell walls 38.8 44.7 % - 4.9 27.3 -46.5 20 5.6 30.6 -52.7 19
Starch 19.4 22.3 % - 3.9 10.3 -37.7 4827 4.5 11.6 -40.4 4139
Starch, enzymatic method 16.3 18.7 % - 5.3 9.6 -28.1 6 6.1 10.8 -31 25
Total sugars 6.9 7.9 % - 1.3 2.9 -8.6 138 1.5 3.3 -9.8 137
Gross energy (kcal) 3930 4520 kcal/kg - 80 3680 -4150 33 70 4310 -4660 70
Gross energy (MJ) 16.4 18.9 MJ/kg - 0.3 15.4 -17.4 33 0.3 18 -19.5 70
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.2 1.4 g/kg - 0.4 0.2 -3 714 0.5 0.2 -3.5 704
Phosphorus 9.5 11 g/kg - 1.3 4.6 -12 104 1.5 5.2 -13.6 79
Phytate phosphorus 7.6 8.8 g/kg 80 % P 7.4 -11.9 3 5.6 -14 4 50-86 3
Magnesium 3.6 4.2 g/kg - 0.8 1.9 -5.9 41 0.9 2.2 -6.7 55
Potassium 11.7 13.5 g/kg - 1.9 8.1 -17.6 65 2.2 8.9 -20 74
Sodium 0.07 0.08 g/kg - 0.06 0 -0.27 104 0.07 0 -0.4 117
Chlorine 0.8 0.9 g/kg - 0.2 0.4 -1.2 32 0.2 0.5 -1.4 40
Sulfur 1.9 2.1 g/kg - 0.5 1.6 -2.6 6 0.5 1.6 -2.9 16
Dietary cation-anion difference 163 188 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 280 322 mEq/kg -
Manganese 111 128 mg/kg - 30 58 -165 30 35 30 -188 44
Zinc 76 87 mg/kg - 24 11 -127 23 28 13 -145 37
Copper 11 13 mg/kg - 3 9 -16 26 4 2 -19 36
Iron 143 165 mg/kg - 62 72 -209 23 71 58 -433 26
Selenium 0.4 0.5 mg/kg - 0.1 0.3 -0.7 6 0.2 0.3 -0.8 6
Cobalt 0.09 0.1 mg/kg -
Molybdenum 1 2 mg/kg - 0.7 1 -3 15
Iodine 0 0 mg/kg - 1
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.02 0.02 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 4.7 5.4 g/kg 17.8 % FA 0.4 3.7 -4.8 5 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4 4.6 g/kg 15.2 % FA 0.5 3.8 -5.2 5 0.6 4.2 -5.8 5 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 14.7 17 g/kg 56.4 % FA 1.4 14 -17.5 5 1.5 15.6 -19.3 5
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.5 1.8 g/kg 5.9 % FA 0.2 1.3 -1.9 5 0.3 1.5 -2.1 5 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.05 0.06 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.3 0.4 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.1 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 2.6 3 % 80 % fat 3 75-84 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 14.8 17 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.6 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4 4.6 mg/kg -
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.8 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 192 221 mg/kg -
Pantothenic acid 28 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 744 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 1760 2030 IU/kg - 1 1100 -3340 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.79 0.91 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.74 0.85 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 77 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 29 34 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.269 0.31 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2200 2530 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1390 1600 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1300 1500 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 9.2 10.6 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.8 6.7 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 5.5 6.3 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 69.1 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 67.2 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 73 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 60 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.81 0.93 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.77 0.88 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 33 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 75 86 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 32 37 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.75 0.86 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.69 0.8 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 38 44 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 82 95 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 23 27 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.78 0.9 per kg - 0.05 0.05 0.89 -1.06 7
UFL INRA 2007 0.78 0.9 per kg - 0.04 0.04 0.87 -0.99 7
UFV INRA 2007 0.72 0.83 per kg - 0.06 0.06 0.82 -1.02 7
UFV INRA 2007 0.72 0.83 per kg - 0.05 0.05 0.79 -0.94 7
PDIA INRA 2007 34 40 g/kg - 9 10 32 -64 8
PDIN INRA 2007 98 112 g/kg - 10 11 95 -130 8
PDIE INRA 2007 79 91 g/kg - 8
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2200 2530 kcal/kg - 230 260 2060 -3040 14
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.2 10.6 MJ/kg - 230
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 9.2 10.6 MJ/kg - 1 1.1 8.6 -12.7 14
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 70.5 % 5.1 66.4-81.3 18
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 68.6 % 4.7 64.5-77.4 14
N digestibility ruminants - 66.9 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 80 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 % 1
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 75 % 6 65-87 17
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 15 13-55 7
Potentially degradable N (b) - 54 % 15 41-78 7
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.165 h-1 0.09 0.083-0.307 7
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
Immediately degradable starch (a) - 78 %
Potentially degradable starch (b) - 22 %
Degradation rate of particles starch (c) - 0.205 h-1
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 61 % 3 57-65 7
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 36 % 8 23-43 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 42 % 14 34-64 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.09 h-1 0.016 0.067-0.108 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 72.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 7.2 8.2 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.7 0.8 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 778 894 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 792 910 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 63 72 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 35 40 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.5 4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.3 1.4 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 61 70.2 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 2.77 3.18 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.37 1.57 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.29 1.48 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.48 1.7 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 0.95 1.09 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 28 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 24 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 5.5 6.3 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 134 154 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 3 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2230 2560 kcal/kg - 280 1920 -2900 14 320 2140 -3300 18
ME growing pig (kcal) 2110 2430 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1490 1710 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2460 2830 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2300 2650 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1620 1860 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 9.3 10.7 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 8.8 10.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 6.2 7.2 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 10.3 11.8 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 9.6 11.1 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 6.8 7.8 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 56.7 % 7 46.5-71 17
Energy digestibility adult pig - 62.6 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 60.5 % 5.6 54-73 9
OM digestibility adult pig - 66.2 %
N digestibility growing pig - 64.6 % 6.9 59.9-84.9 13
N digestibility adult pig - 73.8 %
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 68.6 % 6.7 61.9-82.1 11
Crude fat digestibility pig - 39.1 % 14.5 12-59 11
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.4 2.7 g/kg 25 % 1
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4.8 5.5 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 1660 1910 kcal/kg - 340 1250 -1840 6 390 1270 -2530 16
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1580 1820 kcal/kg - 1670 -1870 3
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 7 8 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 6.6 7.6 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2.4 2.7 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.4 2.7 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 69.3 %
Energy digestibility horse - 66.8 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.77 0.88 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 103 118 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2710 3120 kcal/kg - 240 2560 -3280 12
ME rabbit (kcal) 2610 3000 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 11.3 13 MJ/kg -
ME rabbit (MJ) 10.9 12.6 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 68.9 %
N digestibility rabbit - 48.4 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 2180 2510 kcal/kg -
DE salmonids (MJ) 9.1 10.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 83.7 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6 7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.8 3.5 -8.8 82 1 4.1 -9.8 70 0.4 2.9-4.9 81
Threonine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.7 3.6 -6.7 40 0.8 4.2 -7.4 29 0.2 2.9-3.8 39
Methionine 2.3 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.7 -3.6 64 0.4 2 -4 53 0.2 1-1.8 63
Cystine 3.2 3.7 g/kg 2.1 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -4 54 0.4 2.8 -4.6 44 0.3 1.5-2.6 54
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.5 4.2 -6.9 52 0.6 5.2 -7.7 42 0.2 3-4.1 51
Tryptophan 2 2.3 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.4 1.4 -3 21 0.5 1.7 -3.3 14 0.2 1.1-1.7 23
Isoleucine 4.9 5.6 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.8 4 -7 40 0.9 4.5 -7.7 31 0.2 2.6-3.6 41
Valine 6.9 7.9 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.8 5.5 -9.4 38 0.9 6.7 -10.2 28 0.4 3.6-5.4 38
Leucine 9.3 10.7 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 1.1 7.8 -12 38 1.2 9.1 -13.3 29 0.4 5.1-7.1 39
Phenylalanine 6.1 7 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.8 5 -8.1 38 0.9 5.7 -9 29 0.3 3.1-4.5 39
Tyrosine 4 4.6 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 3 -4.9 26 0.5 3.6 -5.5 20 0.3 2.1-3 29
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.1 11.6 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.7 8.6 -11.8 22 0.8 10.4 -13.1 16 0.4 5.9-7.4 24
Histidine 4 4.7 g/kg 2.7 g/16g N 0.5 3.3 -5.2 37 0.6 3.9 -5.8 28 0.3 2.1-3.1 38
Arginine 9.6 11.1 g/kg 6.3 g/16g N 1.8 5.6 -14.4 36 2.1 6.5 -16 27 0.7 4.6-7.9 36
Alanine 6.8 7.8 g/kg 4.4 g/16g N 0.8 4.6 -8.9 36 1 5.4 -9.8 28 0.4 3.8-5.3 36
Aspartic acid 10 11.5 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.8 6.6 -14.9 36 2 7.7 -16.6 26 0.5 5.4-7.9 35
Glutamic acid 30.8 35.4 g/kg 20.1 g/16g N 2.9 24.9 -36.7 35 3.4 28.7 -40 27 2.2 16.6-26.4 34
Glycine 7.4 8.5 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 1 4.6 -9.8 37 1.1 5.4 -10.7 27 0.5 3.8-6.1 37
Serine 6.6 7.5 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.9 5.3 -8.6 38 1 6.2 -9.5 28 0.2 3.9-4.9 37
Proline 10.1 11.7 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 8 -12.2 25 1.1 9.4 -13.3 18 0.6 5.5-7.7 25
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.8 g/kg 69 % 192 4 -438 5 221 4.5 -500 5 8 61-86 12
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 65 % 189 3.7 -428 5 7 61-80 12
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 1.8 2 g/kg 76 % 222 1.7 -502 5 255 1.9 -573 5 5 72-88 12
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.3 2.7 g/kg 72 % 4 69-83 10
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.1 4.7 g/kg 74 % 3.8 -4.5 4 4.3 -5.1 4 5 72-84 10
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.5 1.7 g/kg 76 % 3 74-84 7
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 3.6 4.2 g/kg 74 % 211 3.1 -480 5 243 3.5 -548 5 5 69-85 12
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5 5.7 g/kg 72 % 5 65-82 12
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7 8.1 g/kg 75 % 228 6.9 -523 5 263 7.8 -596 5 5 70-86 12
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 79 % 278 4.8 -633 5 320 5.4 -722 5 5 74-88 12
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 80 % 209 3 -475 5 240 3.4 -542 5 4 74-86 12
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.2 g/kg 79 % 7.8 -8.7 4 8.8 -9.8 4 4 74-86 10
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.2 3.7 g/kg 79 % 233 3 -529 5 268 3.3 -603 5 4 76-89 12
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.1 9.3 g/kg 84 % 219 7.8 -502 5 252 8.8 -573 5 5 77-94 12
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 66 % 140 4.4 -320 5 161 4.9 -365 5 7 58-82 12
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 7.1 8.2 g/kg 71 % 156 6.9 -360 5 179 7.8 -410 5 7 65-86 12
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 26.5 30.5 g/kg 86 % 261 29.9 -615 5 4 77-92 12
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.5 g/kg 65 % 4.7 -5.8 4 5.3 -6.6 4 8 60-88 11
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.6 g/kg 74 % 174 4.4 -397 5 200 5 -453 5 5 70-87 12
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 8.2 9.4 g/kg 81 % 179 6.9 -412 5 206 7.9 -470 5 11 56-92 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.6 5.3 g/kg 77 % 46-79 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.5 4 g/kg 71 % 54-73 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 1.9 2.2 g/kg 81 % 54-82 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.4 2.8 g/kg 75 % 65-76 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.3 4.9 g/kg 77 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.5 1.8 g/kg 76 % 1
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.9 4.4 g/kg 79 % 54-81 2
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.9 g/kg 75 % 47-76 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.2 8.3 g/kg 77 % 56-79 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.7 5.5 g/kg 78 %
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.9 3.3 g/kg 72 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.8 g/kg 76 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3 3.5 g/kg 74 % 54-78 2
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.7 g/kg 79 % 54-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5 5.8 g/kg 75 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 7.5 8.6 g/kg 75 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 26.6 30.6 g/kg 86 %
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 72 %
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.7 g/kg 75 %
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 7.9 9 g/kg 77 % 1
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.65 0.75 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.61 0.7 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 73 84 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0018 0.0021 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 7.89 9.07 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0 0 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML