Wheat middlings (average)

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for "average" wheat middlings representing the whole range of starch content.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88 100 % - 1.2 83.8 -96.7 2362 1.9
Crude protein 15.7 17.9 % - 1.1 9.8 -18.9 2736 1.2 10.8 -21.3 2384
Crude fibre 7 7.9 % - 1.3 2.6 -10 1207 1.5 3 -11.7 984
Crude fat 3.9 4.4 % - 0.6 0.8 -5.2 597 0.7 0.9 -6 585
Ash 4.1 4.7 % - 0.6 1.6 -5.8 949 0.6 1.9 -6.4 792
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.01 -0.2 31 0.04 0.01 -0.2 31
NDF 31 35.3 % - 5.9 17.4 -43.6 88 6.7 20.6 -50.3 138
ADF 9 10.3 % - 2.1 4.4 -13.1 88 2.4 5.2 -15.2 146
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.7 0.8 -3.8 135 0.8 0.9 -4.3 186
Water insoluble cell walls 30.3 34.4 % - 5.8 19.9 -33.6 8 6.6 22.5 -38.9 7
Starch 28.4 32.3 % - 6.7 17 -59.6 2437 7.6 19.2 -67.6 2126
Starch, enzymatic method 24.5 27.9 % - 8.5 22 -26.3 5 9.7 25.1 -57.5 14
Total sugars 6.9 7.9 % - 1.8 2.1 -10.5 111 2.1 2.4 -12 113
Gross energy (kcal) 4020 4580 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 20 80 4410 -4840 39
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.2 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 20 0.3 18.4 -20.3 39
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.3 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -2.1 221 0.4 0.2 -2.4 225
Phosphorus 8.3 9.5 g/kg - 1.7 3.9 -15.3 243 1.9 4.4 -16.8 248
Phytate phosphorus 6.7 7.6 g/kg 80 % P 1 7 -10.5 3 78-80 3
Magnesium 3.5 4 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 33 0.8 1.2 -4.8 33
Potassium 10.4 11.8 g/kg - 1.5 7.1 -15.4 41 1.7 8.1 -16.9 48
Sodium 0.05 0.06 g/kg - 0.03 0.01 -0.18 64 0.04 0.01 -0.2 71
Chlorine 0.9 1.1 g/kg - 0.2 0.7 -1.3 6 0.2 0.8 -1.4 5
Sulfur 1.7 1.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.4 -2 7 0.3 1.5 -2.3 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 135 154 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 242 275 mEq/kg -
Manganese 93 106 mg/kg - 25 73 -150 16 28 58 -169 26
Zinc 89 101 mg/kg - 18 70 -131 8 21 72 -143 18
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 2 10 -15 8 2 11 -17 16
Iron 147 167 mg/kg - 65 58 -236 7 73 65 -257 7
Selenium 0.2 0.2 mg/kg - 0.2 -0.2 2
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 0.9 1 mg/kg - 0.01 0.9 -0.9 5 0 1 -1 5
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C6 + C8 + C10 fatty acids 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C12:0 lauric acid 0.03 0.03 g/kg 0.08 % FA
C14:0 myristic acid 0.04 0.05 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 0-0.3 4
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.6 6.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 1 3.4 -6.1 6 1.1 3.9 -6.9 6 0.9 15.5-18.3 9
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.3 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.08 0.09 -0.3 6 0.09 0.1 -0.3 6 0.07 0.7-0.9 8
C18:1 oleic acid 4.8 5.4 g/kg 15.2 % FA 1.3 3 -6.2 6 1.4 3.4 -7.1 6 2.7 11.3-20.4 11
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.7 20.1 g/kg 56.4 % FA 3.4 12.3 -21.9 6 3.8 13.9 -24.1 6
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.8 2.1 g/kg 5.9 % FA 0.4 1.2 -2.4 6 0.4 1.3 -2.6 6 1 5.4-8.5 9
C18:4 stearidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:0 arachidic acid 0.06 0.07 g/kg 0.2 % FA 0-1.9 3
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA 1
C20:4 arachidonic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:0 behenic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:1 erucic acid 0.2 0.2 g/kg 0.5 % FA
C22:5 docosapentaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C22:6 docosahexaenoic acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
C24:0 lignoceric acid 0 0 g/kg 0 % FA
Fatty acids 3.1 3.6 % 80 % fat 3 80-86 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin A 0.09 0.1 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin D 0 0 1000 IU/kg -
Vitamin E 15 17 mg/kg -
Vitamin K 0.5 0.5 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 7.7 8.7 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 4.1 4.6 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 9.9 11.3 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 194 221 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 28.4 32.3 mg/kg -
Folic acid 0 0 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.3 0.4 mg/kg -
Vitamin C 0 0 mg/kg -
Choline 753 856 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2590 2940 IU/kg - 1 1900 -3850 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.88 1 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.85 0.96 per kg -
PDIA INRA 2018 34 39 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 81 92 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 32 36 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2420 2750 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1560 1770 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1490 1700 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.7 7.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.6 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 71.8 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 8 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.9 1.03 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.87 0.99 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 34 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 78 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 35 40 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.84 0.96 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.8 0.91 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 41 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 87 99 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 26 29 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.87 0.99 per kg - 0.06 0.81 -0.89 4 0.07 0.93 -1.13 12
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.01 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.82 0.94 per kg - 0.08 0.77 -0.85 4 0.09 0.87 -1.12 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 36 41 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 103 117 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 85 97 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2410 2740 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.1 11.5 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 75 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 73.2 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 68.7 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 % 39-83 3
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1 0.134-0.182 3
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 64 %
Immediately degradable DM (a) - 44 % 15 27-74 6
Potentially degradable DM (b) - 38 % 8 21-46 6
Degradation rate of particles DM (c) - 0.065 h-1 0.052 0.004-0.145 6
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.3 7.1 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.7 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 8 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
VEM CVB 2018 866 985 per kg -
VEVI CVB 2018 902 1025 per kg -
DVE CVB 1991 71 81 g/kg -
OEB CVB 1991 35 40 g/kg -
DVLYS CVB 1991 3.9 4.4 g/kg -
DVMET CVB 1991 1.4 1.6 g/kg -
TDN 1x ruminants NRC 2001 66.7 75.8 % -
DE 1x ruminants NRC 2001 3.01 3.42 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.53 1.74 Mcal/kg -
NE Lactation 4x ruminants NRC 2001 1.44 1.64 Mcal/kg -
NE Maintenance 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.64 1.87 Mcal/kg -
NE Gain 3x ruminants NRC 2001 1.09 1.23 Mcal/kg -
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 25% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 22 %
Rumen Undegradable Protein (diet 50% concentrate) NRC 2001 - 26 %
EN Lactation ruminants GfE 6.1 7 MJ/kg -
nxP ruminants GfE 143 162 g/kg -
RNB ruminants GfE 2 3 g/kg -
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2680 3050 kcal/kg - 310 2300 -3100 3 350 2510 -3560 6
ME growing pig (kcal) 2560 2910 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1860 2110 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2860 3250 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2700 3070 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1960 2230 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.8 MJ/kg -
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.2 9.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.6 % 7.2 56.4-78 6
Energy digestibility adult pig - 71.1 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 69.9 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74.2 % 1
N digestibility growing pig - 70.8 % 69-79.4 4
N digestibility adult pig - 77.7 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 75.9 % 5.3 72.9-88.8 13
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.4 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4.2 4.7 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2080 2360 kcal/kg - 360 1260 -2220 7 410 1460 -2840 9
AMEn broiler (kcal) 1990 2260 kcal/kg - 1430 -1990 2
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg -
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.3 9.5 MJ/kg -
Available P cockerel 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P
Available P broiler 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 % P
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 74.8 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 72 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.87 0.99 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 112 127 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2920 3320 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2800 3180 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg - 1
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.6 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 59.8 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1790 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 4 4.6 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.8 2.3 -8.1 72 0.9 4.6 -9.3 45 0.5 2.2-4.9 73
Threonine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.6 2.6 -6.1 60 0.7 4.2 -8 36 0.2 2.6-4 64
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 59 0.4 1.6 -3.6 34 0.2 0.8-2 62
Cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -4 52 0.4 2.9 -4.6 26 0.2 1.6-2.6 53
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.3 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.5 51 0.5 5.3 -7.2 25 0.3 3.1-4.4 52
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 37 0.3 1.9 -2.9 14 0.2 1.1-1.8 38
Isoleucine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 60 0.5 4.7 -7 36 0.2 2.8-3.8 64
Valine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.7 4 -8.5 58 0.8 6.4 -10 32 0.3 3.8-5.1 60
Leucine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.7 6.5 -11.2 60 0.8 9.9 -14 36 0.4 5.2-7 64
Phenylalanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 55 0.6 5.9 -8.2 34 0.2 3.4-4.4 59
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.6 2.9 -5.1 39 0.7 3.4 -6 20 0.3 2.1-3.5 43
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.3 11.7 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1 8.5 -11.9 31 1.1 9.4 -14 15 0.4 5.7-7.3 35
Histidine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -5 56 0.5 3.8 -5.5 32 0.2 2-3.1 59
Arginine 10 11.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.4 5.4 -12.9 57 1.5 8.4 -15 34 0.5 4.9-7.2 60
Alanine 7 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.9 4.4 -9 56 1.1 6.1 -11 33 0.4 3.4-5.2 58
Aspartic acid 10.4 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.2 6.5 -12.7 54 1.4 9.3 -16 34 0.4 5.5-8.1 57
Glutamic acid 31.7 36 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.1 24.4 -42.3 54 3.4 30.5 -44.5 33 2.6 14.4-26.7 57
Glycine 7.6 8.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.9 57 0.9 6.6 -11 34 0.4 3.5-5.8 61
Serine 6.7 7.7 g/kg 4.3 g/16g N 0.6 4.4 -7.6 56 0.6 6.2 -8.6 31 0.3 3.1-5 58
Proline 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.7 g/16g N 0.8 8 -13.9 38 0.9 10.2 -13.6 19 0.7 5.1-8.7 40
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.7 5.4 g/kg 76 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 6 68-89 13
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 73 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 5 69-87 13
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 82 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 79-91 13
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 4 76-88 13
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.4 5 g/kg 80 % 4 78-89 13
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 3 78-88 9
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 % 5 74-90 13
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 78 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 6 68-90 13
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.8 g/kg 81 % 5 74-91 13
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.2 6 g/kg 84 % 5 76-93 13
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 6 70-95 13
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 6 74-94 13
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 88 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-95 13
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.8 g/kg 72 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 7 66-88 13
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 77 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 5 68-89 13
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.4 32.2 g/kg 90 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 85-95 13
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.3 g/kg 73 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 7 62-88 13
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 5.4 6.1 g/kg 80 % 4.7 -6.1 2 5.4 -6.9 2 4 76-90 13
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 10.4 g/kg 87 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 75 % 59-75 2
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 79 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.3 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.3 32.1 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.3 6.1 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.9 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
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