Wheat middlings (average)

Byproduct of wheat flour production obtained by the milling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., also known as Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum). It consists principally of fragments of the outer skins and of particles of grain containing variable amounts of endosperm. Wheat middlings are often mixtures of different types of milling offal. They are typically richer in starch and less coarse than wheat bran, and poorer in starch and coarser than wheat feed flour. The composition and nutritive values are provided for "average" wheat middlings representing the whole range of starch content.

Values

Main constituents
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Dry matter 88 100 % - 2.1 83.8 -96.7 2127 1.9
Crude protein 15.7 17.9 % - 1.1 9.8 -18.9 2502 1.2 10.8 -21.3 2150
Crude fibre 7 7.9 % - 1.3 2.6 -10 1134 1.5 3 -11.7 911
Crude fat 3.9 4.4 % - 0.6 0.8 -5.2 545 0.7 0.9 -6 533
Ash 4.1 4.7 % - 0.6 1.6 -5.8 885 0.6 1.9 -6.4 728
Insoluble ash 0.08 0.09 % - 0.04 0.01 -0.2 31 0.04 0.01 -0.2 31
NDF 30.9 35.1 % - 5.9 17.4 -43.6 87 6.7 20.6 -50.3 137
ADF 9 10.2 % - 2.1 4.4 -13.1 87 2.4 5.2 -15.2 145
Lignin 2.6 3 % - 0.7 0.8 -3.8 135 0.8 0.9 -4.3 186
Water insoluble cell walls 30.2 34.3 % - 5.8 19.9 -33.6 8 6.6 22.5 -38.9 7
Starch 28.5 32.4 % - 6.8 17 -59.6 2272 7.7 19.2 -67.6 1961
Total sugars 6.9 7.9 % - 1.8 2.1 -10.5 111 2.1 2.4 -12 113
Gross energy (kcal) 4020 4580 kcal/kg - 90 3870 -4290 20 80 4410 -4840 39
Gross energy (MJ) 16.8 19.1 MJ/kg - 0.4 16.2 -18 20 0.3 18.4 -20.3 39
Mineral elements
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Calcium 1.1 1.3 g/kg - 0.3 0.2 -2.1 220 0.4 0.2 -2.4 224
Phosphorus 8.3 9.5 g/kg - 1.6 3.9 -15.3 242 1.9 4.4 -16.8 247
Phytate phosphorus 6.7 7.6 g/kg 80 % P 1 7 -10.5 3 78-80 3
Magnesium 3.5 4 g/kg - 0.7 1.1 -4.3 33 0.8 1.2 -4.8 33
Potassium 10.4 11.8 g/kg - 1.5 7.1 -15.4 41 1.7 8.1 -16.9 48
Sodium 0.05 0.06 g/kg - 0.03 0.01 -0.18 64 0.04 0.01 -0.2 71
Chlorine 1 1.1 g/kg - 0.2 0.7 -1.3 6 0.2 0.8 -1.4 5
Sulfur 1.6 1.9 g/kg - 0.3 1.4 -2 7 0.3 1.5 -2.3 7
Dietary cation-anion difference 138 157 mEq/kg -
Electrolyte balance 241 274 mEq/kg -
Manganese 100 114 mg/kg - 25 73 -150 16 28 58 -169 26
Zinc 89 101 mg/kg - 18 70 -131 8 21 72 -143 18
Copper 13 14 mg/kg - 2 10 -15 8 2 11 -17 16
Iron 94 107 mg/kg - 65 58 -236 7 73 65 -257 7
Selenium 0.6 0.7 mg/kg -
Cobalt 0.07 0.08 mg/kg - 1 1
Molybdenum 2 3 mg/kg -
Iodine 0.09 0.1 mg/kg - 0 0.09 -0.09 5 0 0.1 -0.1 5
Fatty acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
C14:0 myristic acid 0.03 0.04 g/kg 0.1 % FA 1 1 1
C16:0 palmitic acid 5.6 6.3 g/kg 17.8 % FA 1 3.4 -6.1 6 1.1 3.9 -6.9 6 0.9 15.3-17.8 6
C16:1 palmitoleic acid 0.1 0.1 g/kg 0.4 % FA
C18:0 stearic acid 0.2 0.3 g/kg 0.8 % FA 0.08 0.09 -0.3 6 0.09 0.1 -0.3 6
C18:1 oleic acid 4.7 5.4 g/kg 15.2 % FA 1.3 3 -6.2 6 1.4 3.4 -7.1 6 1.6 14.2-18.3 6
C18:2 linoleic acid 17.6 20 g/kg 56.4 % FA 3.4 12.3 -21.9 6 3.8 13.9 -24.1 6
C18:3 linolenic acid 1.8 2.1 g/kg 5.9 % FA 0.4 1.2 -2.4 6 0.4 1.3 -2.6 6 0.7 5.4-7.4 6
C20:1 eicosenoic acid 0.4 0.5 g/kg 1.3 % FA
Fatty acids 3.1 3.5 g/kg 80 % fat 3 80-86 5
Vitamins and pigments
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Vitamin E 25 28 mg/kg -
Vitamin B1 thiamin 16 18 mg/kg -
Vitamin B2 riboflavin 2 2 mg/kg - 1
Vitamin B6 pyridoxine 8 9 mg/kg -
Vitamin B12 0 0 µg/kg -
Niacin 102 116 mg/kg - 1
Pantothenic acid 18 21 mg/kg -
Folic acid 1 1 mg/kg -
Biotin 0.2 0.3 mg/kg -
Choline 1173 1333 mg/kg -
Other parameters
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Viscosity, real applied - 2 mL/g
Phytase activity 2590 2940 IU/kg - 1 1900 -3850 2
Ruminants
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
UFL INRA 2018 0.91 1.04 per kg -
UFV INRA 2018 0.88 1 per kg -
PDIA Systali 34 39 g/kg -
PDI INRA 2018 82 93 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance INRA 2018 31 35 g/kg -
Fill Unit ruminants INRA 2018 0.254 0.289 per kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 2480 2820 kcal/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1600 1820 kcal/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (kcal) 1550 1760 kcal/kg -
ME ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 10.4 11.8 MJ/kg -
NE lactation ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.7 7.6 MJ/kg -
NE meat production ruminants INRA 2018 (MJ) 6.5 7.4 MJ/kg -
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 75.3 %
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2018 - 73.5 %
N degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 75 %
Starch degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 89 %
DM degradability ruminants INRA 2018 - 62 %
Lysine ruminants INRA 2018 - 6.6 % PDI
Threonine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.8 % PDI
Methionine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2 % PDI
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.7 % PDI
Valine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.5 % PDI
Leucine ruminants INRA 2018 - 7.9 % PDI
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2018 - 4.9 % PDI
Histidine ruminants INRA 2018 - 2.3 % PDI
Arginine ruminants INRA 2018 - 5.2 % PDI
UFL FL1 INRA 2018 0.93 1.06 per kg -
UFV FL1 INRA 2018 0.91 1.03 per kg -
PDIA FL1 INRA 2018 29 34 g/kg -
PDI FL1 INRA 2018 79 89 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL1 INRA 2018 34 39 g/kg -
UFL FL4 INRA 2018 0.87 0.99 per kg -
UFV FL4 INRA 2018 0.83 0.95 per kg -
PDIA FL4 INRA 2018 41 47 g/kg -
PDI FL4 INRA 2018 88 100 g/kg -
Rumen protein balance FL4 INRA 2018 25 28 g/kg -
UFL INRA 2007 0.89 1.01 per kg - 0.07 0.85 -0.93 4 0.07 0.96 -1.18 12
UFV INRA 2007 0.85 0.97 per kg - 0.08 0.82 -0.9 4 0.09 0.91 -1.17 12
PDIA INRA 2007 36 41 g/kg - 32 -64 2
PDIN INRA 2007 103 117 g/kg - 111 -135 2
PDIE INRA 2007 86 98 g/kg - 94 -137 2
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (kcal) 2470 2800 kcal/kg - 290 2370 -2560 4 330 2390 -3510 20
ME ruminants INRA 2007 (MJ) 10.3 11.7 MJ/kg - 1.2 9.9 -10.7 4 1.4 10 -14.7 20
OM digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 76.6 % 5.2 71.6-87.2 21
Energy digestibility ruminants INRA 2007 - 74.8 % 5.7 67.1-84.7 20
N digestibility ruminants - 69.5 %
N digestibility, intestinal, ruminants - 87 %
NDF digestibility ruminants - 68 %
N degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 76 % 8 68-87 6
Immediately degradable N (a) - 35 % 32-56 2
Potentially degradable N (b) - 57 %
Degradation rate of particles N (c) - 0.155 h-1
Starch degradability, ruminants (k=0.06) - 95 %
DM degradability ruminants (k=0.06) - 65 %
Fatty acids digestibility ruminants - 73.3 %
Absorbable P ruminants 6.2 7.1 g/kg 75 % P
Absorbable Ca ruminants 0.6 0.7 g/kg 55 % Ca
Lysine ruminants INRA 2007 - 6.7 % PDIE
Threonine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.9 % PDIE
Methionine ruminants INRA 2007 - 1.9 % PDIE
Isoleucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Valine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.6 % PDIE
Leucine ruminants INRA 2007 - 7.9 % PDIE
Phenylalanine ruminants INRA 2007 - 4.8 % PDIE
Histidine ruminants INRA 2007 - 2.2 % PDIE
Arginine ruminants INRA 2007 - 5.1 % PDIE
Pigs
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE growing pig (kcal) 2690 3050 kcal/kg - 310 2300 -3100 3 350 2510 -3560 6
ME growing pig (kcal) 2560 2920 kcal/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (kcal) 1860 2120 kcal/kg -
DE adult pig (kcal) 2870 3260 kcal/kg -
ME adult pig (kcal) 2710 3080 kcal/kg -
NE adult pig (kcal) 1970 2240 kcal/kg -
DE growing pig (MJ) 11.2 12.8 MJ/kg - 1.3 9.6 -13 3 1.5 10.5 -14.9 6
ME growing pig (MJ) 10.7 12.2 MJ/kg - 1 1
NE growing pig (MJ) 7.8 8.9 MJ/kg -
DE adult pig (MJ) 12 13.6 MJ/kg -
ME adult pig (MJ) 11.3 12.9 MJ/kg -
NE adult pig (MJ) 8.2 9.4 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility growing pig - 66.8 % 7.2 56.4-78 6
Energy digestibility adult pig - 71.2 %
OM digestibility growing pig - 70.1 %
OM digestibility adult pig - 74 % 1
N digestibility growing pig - 70.9 % 69-79.4 4
N digestibility adult pig - 77.8 % 1
N digestibility ileal standardised pig - 76 % 5.3 72.9-88.8 13
Crude fat digestibility pig - 50.4 %
Digestible P pig (no phytase) 2.1 2.4 g/kg 25 %
Digestible P pig (with phytase) 4.2 4.7 g/kg 50 %
Poultry
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
AMEn cockerel (kcal) 2080 2370 kcal/kg - 360 1260 -2220 7 410 1460 -2840 9
AMEn broiler (kcal) 2000 2270 kcal/kg -
AMEn cockerel (MJ) 8.7 9.9 MJ/kg - 1.5 5.3 -9.3 7 1.7 6.1 -11.9 9
AMEn broiler (MJ) 8.4 9.5 MJ/kg -
Horses
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
OM digestibility horse - 75 % 1
Energy digestibility horse - 72.1 %
Horse Forage Unit 0.87 0.99 per kg -
Digestible crude protein horse 112 127 g/kg -
Rabbits
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE rabbit (kcal) 2920 3330 kcal/kg - 1 2930 -3460 2
ME rabbit (kcal) 2800 3190 kcal/kg -
DE rabbit (MJ) 12.2 13.9 MJ/kg - 1 12.3 -14.5 2
ME rabbit (MJ) 11.7 13.3 MJ/kg -
Energy digestibility rabbit - 72.7 % 1
N digestibility rabbit - 59.9 %
Fish
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
DE salmonids (kcal) 1790 2040 kcal/kg - 1490 -2030 4 1670 -2280 4
DE salmonids (MJ) 7.5 8.5 MJ/kg - 6.2 -8.5 4 7 -9.6 4
Energy digestibility, salmonids - 44.6 % 36-45.3 4
N digestibility salmonids - 89.3 % 68-92 4
Digestible P salmonids 4 4.6 g/kg 48 %
Amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine 6.3 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.8 2.3 -8.1 72 0.9 4.6 -9.3 45 0.5 2.2-4.9 73
Threonine 5.1 5.8 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.6 2.6 -6.1 60 0.7 4.2 -8 36 0.2 2.6-4 64
Methionine 2.4 2.7 g/kg 1.5 g/16g N 0.4 1.5 -3.2 59 0.4 1.6 -3.6 34 0.2 0.8-2 62
Cystine 3.2 3.6 g/kg 2 g/16g N 0.3 2.1 -4 52 0.4 2.9 -4.6 26 0.2 1.6-2.6 53
Methionine + cystine 5.6 6.4 g/kg 3.6 g/16g N 0.4 3.6 -6.5 51 0.5 5.3 -7.2 25 0.3 3.1-4.4 52
Tryptophan 2.1 2.4 g/kg 1.3 g/16g N 0.3 1.1 -2.8 37 0.3 1.9 -2.9 14 0.2 1.1-1.8 38
Isoleucine 5 5.7 g/kg 3.2 g/16g N 0.5 3.4 -6.4 60 0.5 4.7 -7 36 0.2 2.8-3.8 64
Valine 7.1 8.1 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.7 4 -8.5 58 0.8 6.4 -10 32 0.3 3.8-5.1 60
Leucine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N 0.7 6.5 -11.2 60 0.8 9.9 -14 36 0.4 5.2-7 64
Phenylalanine 6.2 7.1 g/kg 4 g/16g N 0.5 5.3 -7.4 55 0.6 5.9 -8.2 34 0.2 3.4-4.4 59
Tyrosine 4.1 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.6 2.9 -5.1 39 0.7 3.4 -6 20 0.3 2.1-3.5 43
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 10.3 11.8 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.8 8.5 -11.2 28 0.9 10.6 -14 12 0.4 5.9-7.3 32
Histidine 4.2 4.7 g/kg 2.6 g/16g N 0.4 2 -5 56 0.5 3.8 -5.5 32 0.2 2-3.1 59
Arginine 10.1 11.4 g/kg 6.4 g/16g N 1.4 5.4 -12.9 57 1.5 8.4 -15 34 0.5 4.9-7.2 60
Alanine 7 8 g/kg 4.5 g/16g N 0.9 4.4 -9 56 1.1 6.1 -11 33 0.4 3.4-5.2 58
Aspartic acid 10.4 11.9 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 1.2 6.5 -12.7 54 1.4 9.3 -16 34 0.4 5.5-8.1 57
Glutamic acid 31.7 36 g/kg 20.2 g/16g N 3.1 24.4 -42.3 54 3.4 30.5 -44.5 33 2.6 14.4-26.7 57
Glycine 7.6 8.7 g/kg 4.8 g/16g N 0.8 3.4 -8.9 57 0.9 6.6 -11 34 0.4 3.5-5.8 61
Serine 9.6 10.9 g/kg 6.1 g/16g N
Proline 10.5 11.9 g/kg 6.6 g/16g N 0.8 8 -13.9 38 0.9 10.2 -13.6 19 0.7 5.1-8.7 40
Pigs, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardised, pig 4.8 5.4 g/kg 76 % 4.4 -5.6 2 5 -6.4 2 6 68-89 13
Threonine, ileal standardised, pig 3.7 4.2 g/kg 73 % 3 -4.5 2 3.4 -5.1 2 5 69-87 13
Methionine, ileal standardised, pig 2 2.2 g/kg 82 % 1.9 -2.1 2 2.2 -2.4 2 4 79-91 13
Cystine, ileal standardised, pig 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 4 76-88 13
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardised, pig 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 4 78-89 13
Tryptophan, ileal standardised, pig 1.7 1.9 g/kg 80 % 3 78-88 9
Isoleucine, ileal standardised, pig 4 4.6 g/kg 80 % 5 74-90 13
Valine, ileal standardised, pig 5.5 6.3 g/kg 78 % 5.4 -6.1 2 6.2 -7 2 6 68-90 13
Leucine, ileal standardised, pig 7.8 8.8 g/kg 81 % 5 74-91 13
Phenylalanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.3 6 g/kg 84 % 5 76-93 13
Tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 3.4 3.9 g/kg 84 % 3.4 -4.3 2 3.9 -4.9 2 6 70-95 13
Phenylananine + tyrosine, ileal standardised, pig 8.7 9.9 g/kg 84 % 8.5 -9.2 2 9.7 -10.4 2 6 74-94 13
Histidine, ileal standardised, pig 3.5 4 g/kg 84 %
Arginine, ileal standardised, pig 8.8 10 g/kg 88 % 7.5 -9.5 2 8.5 -10.9 2 3 85-95 13
Alanine, ileal standardised, pig 5.1 5.8 g/kg 73 % 4.6 -5.7 2 5.2 -6.5 2 7 66-88 13
Aspartic acid, ileal standardised, pig 8 9.1 g/kg 77 % 7.1 -9.3 2 8 -10.6 2 5 68-89 13
Glutamic acid, ileal standardised, pig 28.4 32.3 g/kg 90 % 25.4 -31.4 2 29 -35.8 2 3 85-95 13
Glycine, ileal standardised, pig 5.6 6.3 g/kg 73 % 5 -6 2 5.6 -6.8 2 7 62-88 13
Serine, ileal standardised, pig 7.6 8.7 g/kg 80 % 4 76-90 13
Proline, ileal standardised, pig 9.1 10.4 g/kg 87 % 8 70-94 8
Poultry, amino acids
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Lysine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.9 5.6 g/kg 78 % 66-83 2
Threonine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.8 4.3 g/kg 75 %
Methionine, ileal standardized, poultry 2 2.3 g/kg 83 % 69-85 2
Cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 2.5 2.8 g/kg 78 % 69-79 2
Methionine + cystine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.5 5.1 g/kg 80 % 1
Tryptophan, ileal standardized, poultry 1.6 1.9 g/kg 80 %
Isoleucine, ileal standardized, poultry 4.1 4.7 g/kg 82 %
Valine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.6 6.3 g/kg 79 % 65-80 2
Leucine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.7 8.8 g/kg 81 % 69-83 2
Phenylalanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.1 5.8 g/kg 82 % 74-83 2
Tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.1 3.5 g/kg 76 % 1
Phenylalanine + tyrosine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.2 9.4 g/kg 80 %
Histidine, ileal standardized, poultry 3.2 3.7 g/kg 77 %
Arginine, ileal standardized, poultry 8.1 9.2 g/kg 80 % 66-83 2
Alanine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.4 6.1 g/kg 77 %
Aspartic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 8 9.1 g/kg 77 %
Glutamic acid, ileal standardized, poultry 28.3 32.2 g/kg 89 % 82-90 2
Glycine, ileal standardized, poultry 5.8 6.6 g/kg 76 % 60-88 2
Serine, ileal standardized, poultry 7.6 8.6 g/kg 79 % 66-80 2
Proline, ileal standardized, poultry 8.7 9.9 g/kg 83 % 79-88 2
Origin France, ex factory
Environmental impact
Parameter As fed On DM Unit Other Unit SD Range Count SD Range Count SD Range Count
Cumulative energy demand (non-renewable: fossil+nuclear) 0.83 0.94 MJ/kg -
Phosphorus consumption 0.6 0.69 g P/kg -
Climate change (ILCD) 94 107 g CO2eq/kg -
Acidification (ILCD) 0.0023 0.0026 mol H+eq/kg -
Eutrophication (CML baseline) 0.86 0.98 g PO4---eq/kg -
Land competition (CML non baseline) 0.29 0.33 m²yr/kg -
CSVXLSXXML